NEWS
Интервью с членом Совета Федеральной палаты адвокатов Российской Федерации, Президентом Адвокатской палаты Республики Башкортостан Б.Г. Юмадиловым.: Интервью с Председателем Президиума Саратовской специализированной коллегии адвокатов, заслуженным юристом Российской Федерации, кандидатом юридических наук, профессором Н.П. Царевой: Интервью с доктором юридических наук, профессором, председателем Научно-консультативного и экспертного Совета Гильдии российских адвокатов, членом Научно-консультативного Совета Федеральной палаты адвокатов РФ, членом Научно-консультативного Совета при Ве: Интервью с вице-президентом Федеральной палаты адвокатов Российской Федерации С.И. Володиной: Интервью с доктором юридических наук, профессором, президентом Гильдии российских адвокатов, ректором Российской академии адвокатуры и нотариата Гасаном Борисовичем Мирзоевым:
















RUS ENG
HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE
Effect of the Norms of the International Treaty Between USSR and Germany Non-Aggression Treaty Of August 23, 1939
KLYACHIN Vyacheslav Matveyevich
Doctor of Law, Associate Professor of the Obninsk branch of the Russian New University
249038, Obninsk, Lenina Avenue 87 , Russian Federation
Abstract: The article shows the reasons and also traces the chain of events that followed the signing of the Non-Aggression Pact between the USSR and Germany on August 23, 1939, which ultimately led to a large-scale military disaster. The catastrophic nature of the development of events at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War is revealed.
Keywords: non-aggression pact, Great Patriotic War, catastrophe, period of catastrophe uncertainty, defense, security, control of troops.
References
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HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE
The Concept and Purpose of Liquidation OF A Legal Entity in Pre-Revolutionary Doctrine
GALI Anastasia Aksanovna
Advocate of Moscow Bar Association «GRAD»
107014, Moscow, Baumanskaya str., 33/2-1, Russian Federation
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify and analyse the approaches of pre-revolutionary doctrine to the concept of voluntary liquidation of a legal entity. The main task of the research was to study literary works, relevant jurisprudence and provisions of legislation with the formulation of the concept of voluntary liquidation of a legal entity and the definition of the purposes of such liquidation. The author compares the definitions of the concept of «liquidation of a legal entity» in modern scientific literature with the approach of pre-revolutionary doctrine. Based on the studied materials, the author proposes a definition of the liquidation of a legal entity, which allows to distinguish the liquidation of a legal entity from similar legal relations.
Keywords: liquidation, reorganisation, termination of a legal entity, definition, pre-revolutionary doctrine
References
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PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
The Legal Profession of Uzbekistan: Some Problematic Issues of the Relationship Between Lawyers and Bodies of Advocate Self-Government
AZIZOV Ilkhom Bahadirovich
Office of the Law Firm «Azizov and partners»
100084, Tashkent, sh. Rashidova str., 96a, Republic of Uzbekistan
ISHANKHANOVA Gulnora Amanovna
Lawyer, Commissioner of the International Commission of Lawyers for Uzbekistan, independent candidate for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) of Tashkent State Law University
100069, Tashkent, Galaba str., 38, Republic of Uzbekistan
KUROLOVA Dilfuza Murodullaevna
Consultant on legal issues of the International Commission of Jurists, trainee lawyer of the Law Firm «SIMAY KOM»
100031, Tashkent, Y. Rajabiy str., 14, sq. 11, Republic of Uzbekistan
MAYOROV Sergey Alexandrovich
Advokat, Managing Partner of the Law Firm «SIMAY KOM»
100031, Tashkent, Y. Rajabiy str., 14, sq. 11, Republic of Uzbekistan
RAKHMATULLAYEVA Tamila Kotibovna
Advokat, Head of the TamiLaw Law Office
100170, Tashkent, Bogishamol str., 2nd passage, 34, Republic of Uzbekistan
TURDALIEV Jamshid Jamalovich
Senior lecturer of the department «Court, Law Enforcement Agencies, Advocacy» of Tashkent State Law University, Managing Partner of the Law Firm «My Lawyer»
100017, Tashkent, Amir Temur Ave., 25, Republic of Uzbekistan
FAYZULLAKHUZHAEV Eldorkhon Javokhir ugli
Partner of the Law Firm «My Lawyer»
100017, Tashkent, Amir Temur ave., 25, Republic of Uzbekistan
Abstract: This publication is devoted to the issues of the independence of lawyers from the bodies of advocate self–government, in particular, territorial administrations and disciplinary bodies (qualification commissions), as well as the prevention of encroachments on the professional rights, honor and dignity of lawyers protected by law.
Keywords: advocacy, lawyers, bodies of advocate self-government
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PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Revisiting Introduction of Specialization of Business Advocates in Order to Minimize the Risks in Their Professional Activities
MARCHEVA Polina Evgenyevna
Candidate of Law, Associate Professor of Advocacy Department of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL)
125993, Moscow, Sadovaya-Kudrunskaya Str., 9, Russian Federation
Abstract: In the article, the author analyzes the professional activities of advocates who deliver qualified legal services to business. Having identified the peculiarities of the professional activities, as well as having considered some risks of their professional activities, the author formulates proposals aimed at minimizing them. In particular, the author justifies the need to introduce appropriate specialization, as well as the need to develop a training program for business advocates, which will include practice-oriented disciplines aimed at studying the international experience of advocates in this area.
Keywords: advocate, advocacy, business advocacy, business activity, risks, risks in professional activities of an advocate, specialization
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21.Rhode D. Ethical Perspectives on Legal Practice, 37 Stan. Law Review, 1985. P. 589–629.
22.Wendel W. Lawyers and Fidelity to Law- Princeton University Press, 2010. P. 24–26.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Anticipatory Verification of the Versions of the Defense in Criminal Cases of Bribery and Constructive Interaction Between the Investigator and the Lawyer
GARMAEV Yuri Petrovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Criminal Law, Procedure and Criminalistics of the Dorji Banzarov Buryat State University
670000, Ulan-Ude, Smolina str., 24a, Russian Federation
POLYAKOV Igor Mikhailovich
Lawyer of the «Legal Guarantee» Bar Association of the Primorsky Territory Chamber of Advocates, Senior Lecturer at the Department of Criminal Law Disciplines of Vladivostok State University
690002, Vladivostok, Ostryakova ave., 5, office 510, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article, based on previous research on the tactics of anticipatory alibi verification and other versions of the defense, examines the features of the application of appropriate tactics and tactical operations in cases of bribery. Using a specific example of investigation and professional protection in a criminal case of bribery, a typical investigative situation (and ways to solve it) is considered, in which the accused admits guilt and even cooperates with the investigation, but may later change his testimony. The authors argue that in such a situation, the investigator should not relax. In this context, the typical manifestations of the notorious accusatory bias are analyzed, which consists in the disregard by representatives of the prosecution and the court of evidence in favor of the accused, in the unwillingness to verify and take into account the arguments of the defense.
Typical defense strategies and tactics are also demonstrated, which can lead to unfavorable results for the investigation. The features of the defense tactics are analyzed depending on the level of qualification of the lawyers who entered the case and the presence/absence of their professional specialization in cases of corruption and official crimes. A model of a four-stage algorithm for a tactical operation to verify protective versions of bribery cases by an investigator is proposed. This model includes an important element – effective and constructive interaction between the investigator and the lawyer. The key stage of the tactical operation algorithm is the stage of the investigator's assessment of the judicial perspective on a criminal case and making legal and tactical decisions, often in cooperation with a lawyer. In addition, the investigator, predicting the development of the investigative situation, if there are reasonable doubts about the judicial perspective of the case, may initiate an interdepartmental meeting.
Keywords: investigation of bribery, corruption and official crimes, versions of innocence, accusatory bias, defense strategy and tactics, interaction between investigator and lawyer, tactical operation, anticipatory verification of versions, judicial perspective in a criminal case
References
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2.Murashkin I.Yu. Storona obvineniya kak sub``ekt dokazy`vaniya nevinovnosti // Nauchny`j vestnik Omskoj akademii MVD Rossii. 2018. № 1 (68). S. 25–29.
3.Nazarov A.D. Obvinitel`ny`j uklon v deyatel`nosti sub``ektov, vedushhix ugolovny`j process, kak faktor, sposobstvuyushhij poyavleniyu oshibok v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve // Aktual`ny`e problemy` rossijskogo prava. 2015. № 9. S. 149–151.
4.Baev O.Ya. Kriminalistika. Lekcionny`j kurs: ucheb. posob. M., 2017.
5.Ugolovnoe delo № 11902050005000032 vozbuzhdeno Pervorechenskim SO SU SK RF po Primorskomu krayu (KURSP № 269 pr-19 ot 15.05.2019).
6.Drapkin L.Ya. Situacionny`j podxod v kriminalisticheskoj teorii i prakticheskoj deyatel`nosti pravooxranitel`ny`x organov // Problemy` sovremennoj kriminalistiki i osnovny`e napravleniya ee razvitiya v XXI veke: Materialy` Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvyashhennoj 60-letnemu yubileyu kafedry` kriminalistiki Ural`skogo gosudarstvennogo yuridicheskogo universiteta (6 oktyabrya 2017 goda). Ekaterinburg, 2017. S. 115–131.
7.Kak vy`brat` advokata / Yu.P. Garmaev, O.V. Vikulov, V.V. Savczov i dr.; pod obshh. red. Yu.P. Garmaeva. Kn. 1. Osnovy` vy`bora advokata v ugolovnom processe. Ulan-Ude`: Izdatel`stvo Buryatskogo gosuniversiteta, 2021.
8.Avtorskij onlajn-kurs Yuriya Garmaeva «Zashhita i obvinenie po delam o korrupcionny`x i dolzhnostny`x prestupleniyax» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://clck.ru/32iGmy.
9.Garmaev Yu.P., Obuxov A.A. Kvalifikaciya i rassledovanie vzyatochnichestva: ucheb.-praktich. posob. M.: Norma, 2009.
10.Garmaev Yu.P. Sudebnaya perspektiva po ugolovnomu delu: ponyatie, vidy`, znachenie // Vestnik Buryatskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2008. № 2. S. 151–154.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Guarantees of the Rights and Duties of a Lawyer When Reviewing the Materials of a Criminal Case
PIROZHENKO Yanina Leonidovna
Advocate of Moscow Region Law Chamber
111020, Moscow, Gospitalny Val str., 8/1, p. 2, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article reveals the problematic issues of familiarization of the lawyer with the materials of the criminal case at the end of the preliminary investigation stage.
Keywords: lawyer, advocacy, familiarization with the criminal case
References
1.Adamajtis M. Sokratit` vremya proxozhdeniya dela s momenta vy`neseniya prigovora do napravleniya v kassaci-onnuyu instanciyu // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2003. № 8. S. 5.
2.Apellyacionnoe opredelenie Sudebnoj kollegii po ugolovny`m delam Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 20.11.2017 № 56-APU17-25SP [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://legalacts.ru/sud/apelliatsionnoe-opredelenie-verkhovnogo-suda-rf-ot-20112017-n-56-apu17-25sp/.
3.Glady`sheva O.V., Semenczov V.A. Oznakomlenie s materialami ugolovnogo dela po okonchanii dosudebnogo proizvodstva: soderzhanie i forma // Yuridicheskij vestnik Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2023. № 15(2). S. 67–77 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://doi.org/10.31429/20785836-15-2-67-77.
4.Informacionnoe pis`mo Prezidiuma Vy`sshego Arbitrazhnogo Suda RF ot 1 iyulya 2014 goda № 167 «Rekomendacii po primeneniyu kriteriev slozhnosti sporov, rassmatrivaemy`x v arbitrazhny`x sudax Rossijskoj Federacii» // Vestnik e`konomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossijskoj Federacii. 2014. № 9.
5.Kalinovskij K.B. Na zashhite lezhit bremya ospari-vaniya obvinitel`ny`x pokazanij [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://e.ugpr.ru/1041830.
6.Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 10.10.2017 № 2252-O «Po zhalobe grazhdanina Xasenova Ibragima Nasrudinovicha na narushenie ego konstitucionny`x prav chast`yu vtoroj.1 stat`i 281 Ugolovno-processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://legalacts.ru/sud/opredelenie-konstitutsionnogo-suda-rf-ot-10102017-n-2252-o/.
7.Opredelenie Mosoblsuda ot 20.01.2022 po delu 3 22352/2022.
8.Opredelenie Xabarovskogo Kraevogo Suda ot 06.06.2023 po delu № 22-1912/2023.
9.Ochen` redkoe reshenie suda [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://fparf.ru/news/law-chambers/ochen-redkoe-reshenie-suda/.
10.Opredelenie Pervogo kassacionnogo suda obshhej yurisdikcii ot 25.11.2020 po delu № 77-2301/2020 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://pravo163.ru/opredelenie-pervogo-kassacionnogo-suda-obshhej-yurisdikcii-ot-25-11-2020-po-delu-77-2301-2020-v-silu-trebovanij-ch-2-1-st-281-upk-rf-oglashenie-pokazanij-svidetelej-ne-yavivshixsya-v-s/.
11.Postanovlenie VS Respubliki Xakasiya ot 29.09.2021 po delu № 22-193.
12.Prikaz sudebnogo departamenta pri Verxovnom Sude RF ot 19 marta 2019 goda № 56 (red. ot 14 iyunya 2022 g.) «Ob utverzhdenii Instrukcii o poryadke organizacii komplektovaniya, xraneniya, ucheta i ispol`zovaniya dokumentov (e`lektronny`x dokumentov) v arxivax federal`ny`x sudov obshhej yurisdikcii» // Byulleten` aktov po sudebnoj sisteme. 2019. № 5, 6.
13.Raz``yasneniya Soveta AP Novosibirskoj oblasti (protokol № 7) ot 26.05.2015.
14.Raz``yasneniya Soveta AP Respubliki Ty`va № 122 ot 18.06.2018 «O prodolzhitel`nosti vremeni oznakomleniya s materialami ugolovnogo dela» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://aprt17.ru/documents/o-prodolzhitelnosti-oznakomleniya-s-materialami-ugolovnogo-dela.
15.Raz``yasneniya Soveta AP Tambovskoj oblasti (protokol №  11) ot 26.10.2018.
16.Raz``yasneniya Soveta AP Kamchatskogo kraya (protokol № 260) ot 27.11.2023.
17.Rook v. Germany (1586/15) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://european-court-help.ru/delo-1586-15-ruk-protiv-hermanii/?ysclid=lubfppnrr992006177.
18.https://www.advgazeta.ru/novosti/v-krasnodare-obsudili-obespechenie-protsessualnykh-prav-advokatov-v-ugolovnom-sudoproizvodstve/.
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20.https://actofact.ru/case-91OS0000-22-303-2021-2021-01-20-2-1/?ysclid=lubfwbzdoj803274199.
21.https://fparf.ru/news/fpa/srok-oznakomleniya-s-materialami-dela/?ysclid=lubg40mhpw916515484.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Issues of Protecting the Rights of Citizens Included in the Register of Persons Dismissed Due to Loss of Trust
KHILCHUK Elena Leonidovna
Senior Lecturer at the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Institute of State and Law of Tyumen State University
625003, Tyumen, Volodarsky st., 6, Russian Federation
Abstract: The fight and counteraction to corruption is more relevant than ever for Russian society. The state is taking all possible measures in this direction. Particular attention is paid to the continuous improvement of anti-corruption legislation. Requirements and restrictions for representatives of state and municipal authorities, individual employees of state corporations and other categories of citizens with a special legal status are being tightened. Since 2017, persons dismissed due to loss of confidence for committing corruption offenses are included in a specially created register. Despite the legal uncertainty of the consequences of inclusion in the register, there are risks of illegal refusal to enter the service or enter into an employment contract for persons included in the register, and therefore the issues of protecting the rights of these persons become relevant. The article reveals the grounds for inclusion in the register, the legal consequences of inclusion in the register. A differentiated approach is proposed when determining the consequences of inclusion in the register. Recommendations are formulated for courts when considering disputes about illegal refusal to enter the service or the conclusion of an employment contract for persons included in the register.
Keywords: Corruption, dismissal, loss of trust, civil service, municipal service, liability for corruption violations, register, protection of rights.
References
1.Volgina G.E., Kovrova V.G. Reestr licz, uvolenny`x za utratu doveriya, v sisteme disciplinarnogo prinuzhdeniya // Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nizhegorodskoj akademii MVD Rossii. 2022. № 2. S. 187–191.
2.Zanko T.A. K voprosu ustanovleniya srokov v otnoshenii ogranichenij, voznikayushhix posle uvol`neniya gosudarstvenny`x grazhdanskix sluzhashhix v svyazi s utratoj doveriya // Administrativnoe i municipal`noe pravo. 2021. № 5. S. 9–14.
3.Laxman A.G. Korrupciya i protivodejstvie korrupcii: problemy` pravoponimaniya // Vlast` i upravlenie na Vostoke Rossii. 2013. № 1. S. 129–134.
4.Presnyakov M.V., Channov S.E. Reestr licz, uvolenny`x s gosudarstvennoj i municipal`noj sluzhby` v svyazi s utratoj doveriya; voprosy` e`ffektivnosti // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2020. № 10. S. 168–181.
5.Serebrennikova A.N., Lebedev M.V. Indeks vospriyatiya korrupcii: ponyatie i ocenka ego vliyaniya // Colloquium-journai. 2020. № 12. S. 52–57.
6.Truncevskij Yu.V. Disciplinarnaya i sudebnaya praktika po delam ob uvol`nenii za korrupcionnoe pravonarushenie v svyazi s utratoj doveriya // Journal of Russian Law. 2020. № 11. S. 155–172.
7.Cherepanova E.V., Matveev V.V. Pravovaya priroda reestra licz, uvolenny`x v svyazi s utratoj doveriya // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2021. № 8. S. 131–139.
8.Kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ob administrativny`x pravonarusheniyax ot 30.12.2001 № 195-FZ (red. ot 11.03.2024) // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2002. № 1. Ch. 1. St. 1.
9.Trudovoj kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ot 30.12.2001 № 197-FZ (red. ot 14.02.2024) // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2002. № 1. Ch. 1. St. 3.
10.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 3 dekabrya 2012 g. № 230-FZ (red. ot 10.07.2023) «O kontrole za sootvetstviem rasxodov licz, zameshhayushhix gosudarstvenny`e dolzhnosti, i iny`x licz ix doxodam» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2012. № 50. Ch. IV. St. 6953.
11.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 25.12.2008 № 273-FZ (red. ot 19.12.2023) «O protivodejstvii korrupcii» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2008. № 52.Ch. 1. St. 6228.
12.Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva RF ot 05.03.2018 № 228 (red. ot 12.07.2023) «O reestre licz, uvolenny`x v svyazi s utratoj doveriya» (vmeste s «Polozheniem o reestre licz, uvolenny`x v svyazi s utratoj doveriya»). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
13.Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 17.07.2018 № 1710-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby` grazhdanina Lavrinenkova Olega Stanislavovicha na narushenie ego konstitucionny`x prav polozheniyami chasti 1 stat`i 13.1 Federal`nogo zakona «O protivodejstvii korrupcii». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
14.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 27.07.2004 № 79-FZ (red. ot 14.04.2024) «O gosudarstvennoj grazhdanskoj sluzhbe Rossijskoj Federacii» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2004. № 31. St. 3215.
15.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 02.03.2007 № 25-FZ (red. ot 12.12.2023) «O municipal`noj sluzhbe v Rossijskoj Federacii» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2007. № 10. St. 1152.
16.Opredelenie Sed`mogo kassacionnogo suda obshhej yurisdikcii ot 08.06.2021 po delu № 88-7795/2021. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
On the Issue of Protection of Creditors' Rights from Nominal (Imaginary) Debtor's Assets Holders
AMBARTSUMOV Roman Andranikovich
Postgraduate student of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, lawyer of LLC «Lemchik, Krupsky and Partners. Structural and tax consulting»
125993, Moscow, Leningradsky ave., 49, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article considers actual problems of protection of creditors' rights from unfair actions of debtors who «write down» their property on imaginary owners.
Keywords: contesting transactions, imaginary owner, nominal owner, concealment of assets, bankruptcy
References
1.Zakonodatel`stvo o bankrotstve: preemstvennost` i novacii: monografiya / P.R. Abdullaeva, N.V. Bandurina, Yu.M. Voronina i dr.; otv. red. S.A. Karelina, I.V. Frolov. M.: Yusticinform, 2023.
2.Bloxina E.V. Bankrotny`e sposoby` zashhity` prav kreditorov v sluchae oformleniya aktivov dolzhnika na podstavny`x licz // Civilist. 2023. № 1. S. 54–60.
3.Opredelenie Sudebnoj kollegii po e`konomicheskim sporam VS RF ot 15.11.2021 № 307-E`S19-23103(2) po delu № A56-6326/2018. Dokument opublikovan ne by`l. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
4.Opredelenie Sudebnoj kollegii po e`konomicheskim sporam VS ot 23.07.2018 № 305-E`S18-3009 po delu № A40-235730/2016. Dokument opublikovan ne by`l. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
5.Opredelenie Sudebnoj kollegii po e`konomicheskim sporam ot 26.11.2018 № 305-E`S15-12239(5) po delu № A40-76551/2014. Dokument opublikovan ne by`l. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
6.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Vostochno-Sibirskogo okruga ot 18.10.2023 № F02-3821/2023 po delu № A10-5988/2021. Dokument opublikovan ne by`l. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
7.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Moskovskogo okruga ot 29.01.2024 № F05-13592/2020 po delu № A40-32986/2019. Dokument opublikovan ne by`l. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
8.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Moskovskogo okruga ot 15.12.2023 № F05-10877/2021 po delu № A40-242489/2020. Dokument opublikovan ne by`l. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Features of Civil Law Regulation of Property Relations Between Spouses
ARUTYUNYAN Radmila Eduardovna
Candidate of Law, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of Pyatigorsk State University
357500, Pyatigorsk, Kalinina ave., 9 , Russian Federation
Abstract: The article analyzes approaches to the regulation of property relations of spouses, issues of joint ownership of property, its division, ways to protect the interests of each spouse.
Keywords: property relations, spouses, law
References
1.Afonasenko Yu.V. Notarial`noe udostoverenie brachnogo dogovora // Notarius. 2015. № 1. S. 104–111.
2.Axmedshina A.N. Pravo na materinskij (semejny`j) kapital v sisteme mer social`nogo obespecheniya // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2009. № 1. S. 98.
3.Bogdanova I.S. Pravovoj rezhim doxoda, poluchaemogo v period braka odnim iz suprugov ot ispol`zovaniya prinadlezhashhego emu imushhestva // Advokat. 2015. № 5. S. 10–13.
4.Vas`kin V.V., Mustafin R.R. Rasporyazhenie imushhestvom, naxodyashhimsya v obshhej sovmestnoj sobstvennosti suprugov. Prakticheskie voprosy` // Zhilishhnoe pravo. 2008. № 9. S. 70–77.
5.Zhilinkova I.V. Pravovoj rezhim imushhestva chlenov sem`i. Xar`kov: Ksilon, 2000.
6.Kruzhalova L.V., Morozova I.G. Spravochnik yurista po semejnomu pravu. SPb.: OOO «Piter Press», 2007.
7.Petrov I.V., Skichko A.A., Polyakova I.I. Grazhdansko-pravovoe regulirovanie imushhestvenny`x otnoshenij suprugov // Vestnik Altajskoj akademii e`konomiki i prava. 2022. № 7-1. S. 170–173.
8.Semenova I.Yu. Imushhestvenny`e otnosheniya suprugov kak semejno-pravovaya kategoriya // Oeconomia et Jus. 2016. № 2. S. 20–24.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Actual Problems of Legal Regulation of Computer Games Industry
BRUNKOVSKY Nikita Nikolayevich
Graduate of the Master's degree program of Lomonosov Moscow State University
119991, Moscow, Vorobyovy Gory, 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: The given article is devoted to consideration of questions of attribution of online games to gambling, possession of game property and criminal legal protection of game property. For this purpose, the author analyzed the provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation judicial practice of the Russian Federation and foreign countries. The article concludes that in order to ensure the protection of game objects they should be referred to other property in the sense of Art. 128 of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: computer games, online games, legal protection of game items, in-game contests
References
1.Stepanov P. P., Filatova M.A. Problemy` ugolovno-pravovoj oxrany` virtual`nogo igrovogo imushhestva // Russian Journal of Criminology. 2021. № 6. S. 744–755.
2.Garazovskaya N.V. Virtual`noe imushhestvo v igrax: perspektivy` pravovogo regulirovaniya // E-SCIO. 2020. № 4 (43). S. 276–290.
3.Savel`ev A.I. Pravovaya priroda virtual`ny`x ob``ektov, priobretaemy`x za real`ny`e den`gi v mnogopol`zovatel`skix igrax // Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava. 2014. T. 14. № 1. S. 127–150.
4.Baturin Yu.M., Polubinskaya S.V. Chto delaet virtual`ny`e prestupleniya real`ny`mi // Trudy` Instituta gosudarstva i prava RAN. 2018. T. 13. № 2. S. 9–35.
5.United States District Court Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 06-4925 — BRAGG v. LINDEN RESEARCH, INC et al. Administrative Office of the United States Courts, May 30, 2007 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.govinfo.gov/app/details/USCOURTS-paed-2_06-cv-04925.
6.Smirnova T. S. Igrovy`e ob``ekty` MMORPG kak veshhi i ob``ekty` grazhdanskix prav // Gosudarstvo i pravo: teoriya i praktika: materialy` VI Mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj konferencii (g. Sankt-Peterburg, aprel` 2020 g.). SPb.: Svoe izdatel`stvo, 2020. S. 8–16 [E`lektronny`j resurs].URL: https://moluch.ru/conf/law/archive/366/15757/.
7.Nemova M.I. Al`ternativny`e sredstva raschyota kak predmet i sredstvo soversheniya prestuplenij v sfere e`konomiki: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2020.
8.Protas E.V., Pavlyuchenkova S.E. Problemy` grazhdansko-pravovogo regulirovaniya virtual`ny`x ob``ektov (na primere mnogopol`zovatel`skix onlajn-igr) // Pravo i obrazovanie. 2020. № 9. S. 106–112.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Gaps in the Legal Regulation of Information Dissemination on the Internet Through the Prism of the «Right to be Forgotten»
TVORUN Karina Ilmirovna
Senior associate PJSC «Aeroflot»
119019, Moscow, Arbat street, b. 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: The scientific article is devoted to the research of legal aspects of personal data deletion in the context of global digitalization. The paper identifies the cornerstone problems of determining the role of mechanisms for regulating the «right to oblivion» from a legal point of view, and formulates proposals for improving the elements of the legal system affecting the aspects of protection of such data.
The author highlights the problems of the normative gap between the rights of the individual as a natural person outside the Internet (offline) and the needs as an online user and the needs as an online user. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the expansion of human rights, which consists in the right not to be subject to algorithmic decisions of artificial intelligence, as well as the differences between traditional and new digital rights.
Keywords: digitalization, network society, information and telecommunication technologies, Internet, globalization, legal gaps, information
References
1.Pashencev D.A., Zaloilo M.V. Vozdejstvie sovre-menny`x cifrovy`x texnologij na soderzhanie i xarakter pravotvorcheskoj deyatel`nosti: teoretiko-pravovoj aspekt // Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nizhegorodskoj akademii MVD Rossii. 2018. № 4. S. 232.
2.Kastel`s Manue`l`. Vlast` kommunikacii: ucheb. posob. 2-e izd., dop. M.: Izd. dom Vy`sshej shkoly` e`konomiki, 2017.
3.Trubeczkoj E.N. E`nciklopediya prava. SPb., 1998.
4.Shershenevich G.F. Obshhaya teoriya prava // Cit. po: Xrestomatiya po teorii gosudarstva i prava / sost. T.N. Rad`ko. 2-e izd. M., 2009. S. 345.
5.Mal`ko A.V., Subochev V.V. Zakonny`e interesy` kak pravovaya kategoriya = Legitimate interests as legal category. SPb.: Izd-vo R. Aslanova: Yurid. centr Press, 2004.
6.Poster M. The Mode of Information: Poststructuralism and Social Context. Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990.
7.Xabrieva T.Ya. Pravo pered vy`zovami cifrovoj real`nosti // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2018. № 9. S. 11.
8.Voronkevich S. Obshhij reglament zashhity` perso-nal`ny`x danny`x (GDPR) Evropejskogo soyuza / A. Boguslavskaya, P. Lozovenko, I. Cherny`sheva, S. Rady`no, S. Golovneva; obshh. red.: S. Voronkevich [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://ico.org.uk/media/about-the-ico/disclosure-log/2014536/irq0680151-disclosure.pdf.
9.Cheremisinova M.E. Pravovoj status sub``ektov v seti Internet: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2020.
10.Cheremisinova M.E. Realizaciya zakonny`x interesov v seti Internet // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2018. № 9 (261) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/realizatsiya-zakonnyh-interesov-v-seti-internet.
11.Alferova E.V. Transformaciya universal`ny`x i konstitucionny`x prav cheloveka v usloviyax cifrovizacii // Konstitucionnoe i municipal`noe pravo. 2023. № 11. C. 31–36.
12.Smolin Arkadij «Pravo na zabvenie» v russkom izlozhenii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. UPL: https://halzen.ru/multimedia/pravo-na-zabvenie-v-rossii-kak-poluchit-i-kak-obhodit-pravo.html.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Analysing the Application of Liquidated Damages in the Civil Legislation of the Czech Republic and the Republic of Poland
KULIKOV Vsevolod Valeryevich
Postgraduate student of the Department of Civil and Business Law of All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia)
117638, Moscow, Azovskaya St., 2, Building 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article analyses certain issues of application of the institute of forfeit in the civil legislation of the Czech Republic and the Republic of Poland. In particular, it analyses the issues related to the equivalent of its imposition, the possibility of its application in monetary and non-monetary obligations, as well as questions about the legal nature of this method of ensuring proper performance of obligations by the parties.
Keywords: forfeit, legal nature of forfeit, enforcement of obligation, damages, Czech Civil Code, Polish Civil Code, monetary obligations, non-monetary obligations
References
1.Hulmak M. a kol. Civil Code V. Law of Obligations. General part. (§ 1721–2054). Comment. 1st edition. Prague: C.H. Beck, 2014. P. 1281.
2.Borysiak W. Comment on article 484 of the Civil Code [in:] K. Osajda [ed.], Komentarz do Kodeksu Cywilnego [Comment on the Civil Code]. Warszawa, 2017.
3.Zákon č. 89/2012 Sb., občanský zákoník (ve znění zákona č. 163/2020 Sb.) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text/578209.
4.The Civil Code z dnia 23 kwietnia 1964 r. (Dz.U. tłum. gb Nr 16, poz. 93) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://supertrans2014.files.wordpress.com/2014/06/the-civil-code.pdf.
5.Decision of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland (Sąd Najwyższy) of December 17, 2008, Ltd. I CSK 240/08 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://sip.lex.pl/orzecenia-i-pisma-urzedowe/orzecenia-sadow/i-csk-240-08-wyrok-sadu-najwyzszego-520578363.
6.Supreme Court of the Republic of Poland by the decision of 18 August, 2015 V CK 90/05 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.sn.pl/sites/orzecznictwo/Orzecenia2/V%20CK%2090-05-1.pdf.
7.Act № 513/1991 Coll., Commercial Code (Obchodní zákoník) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://is.muni.cz/el/1422/jaro2013/SOC038/um/Obchodny_zakonnik_513_1991_v_anglickom_jazyku.pdf.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Convicted Minors as an Object of Criminal Law and Penitentiary Research
KOSTYUK Mikhail Fedorovich
Doctor of Law, Professor, Professor of the Department of Economic and Financial Investigations of the Higher School of Public Audit of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov
119234, Moscow, Leninskie gory, 1, building 13, Russian Federation
KUNTS Elena Vladimirovna
Doctor of Law, Professor, Honorary Worker of Higher Professional Education, Leading Researcher of the Federal Institution Research Institute of the Federal Penitentiary Service of Russia
125130, Moscow, Narvskaya str., 15A, building 1, Russian Federation
Для цитирования: Crime is getting younger and acquiring a stable relapse and repeat character. The criminalization of adolescents and young people deprives society of the prospects for social well-being and stability. The main reason that minors commit crimes is their inability to analyze the seriousness of actions and the fact that they often associate their actions with an exciting game. In this regard, it is important to talk about the prevention of juvenile delinquency, as well as achieving the main goal of punishment – the correction of a convicted minor and the prevention of the commission of new crimes.
Keywords: educational colony, correction, punishment, juvenile convict
References
1.Danilin E.M., Seliverstov V.I. Osuzhdenny`e v vos-pitatel`ny`x koloniyax: po materialam special`noj perepisi osuzhdenny`x i licz, soderzhashhixsya pod strazhej, 12–18 noyabrya 2009 g. / pod red. V.I. Seliverstova. M.: Yurisprudenciya, 2011.
2.Klad`ko V.V., Kostyuk M.F. Problemy` nasil`stven-ny`x posyagatel`stv v otnoshenii nesovershennoletnix: ugolovno-pravovoj i kriminologicheskij aspekty`. M.: Yurlitinform, 2023.
3.Kuncz E. Nesovershennoletnie kak ob``ekt kriminologicheskogo i ugolovno-pravovogo izucheniya: monografiya. Chelyabinsk: Biblioteka A. Millera, 2021.
4.Titova A.I. Lichnost` nesovershennoletnego pres-tupnika // Molodoj ucheny`j. 2018. № 38 (224). S. 162–163.
5.Journal of Offender Rehabilitation. 1993. P. 113–130.
6.https://fsin.gov.ru/statistics.
7.Ugolovny`j kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii: Federal`ny`j zakon ot 13 iyunya 1996 g. № 63-FZ: red. ot 21 noyabrya 2022 g. // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva Rossijskoj Federacii. 1996. № 25. St. 2954.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Improving the Activities of Law Enforcement Agencies in Investigating Cases Related to Criminal Bankruptcy of Business Entities
SMIRNOV Artem Ivanovich
Lecturer-researcher of Institute of Legislation and Comparative Law under the Government of the Russian Federation, Deputy Head of the Department for Supporting Bankruptcy Procedures of Interdistrict Inspectorate of the Federal Tax Service of Russia No. 1 for the Moscow Region
107078, Moscow, Bolshoy Kharitonyevsky Lane 24 , Russian Federation
Abstract: Purpose of article is research of the legal framework for improving the regulatory framework for the activities of law enforcement agencies to ensure security and eliminate threats to the activities of business entities.
General theoretical and formal legal methods were used.
This scientific article is devoted to the consideration of mechanisms for improving the activities of law enforcement agencies when investigating cases related to the criminal bankruptcy of business entities. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the federal tax service and the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the issue of identifying and suppressing crimes in the field of bankruptcy. The issue of criminal bankruptcy of business entities and the peculiarities of the investigation of cases of this category are also considered. A general assessment is given of modern legislation regulating liability for intentional (fictitious) bankruptcy. A legal toolkit has been proposed to improve the activities of law enforcement agencies when investigating cases related to criminal bankruptcy.
The article has high scientific value, since it showed the need to improve the regulatory framework for the activities of law enforcement agencies to eliminate the threat to the economic security of business entities, since their high degree of security ensures the economic stability of the state as a whole.
Keywords: Authorized body, economic security, economic entities, law enforcement agencies, deliberate (fictitious) bankruptcy, criminal bankruptcy, interagency cooperation, development, state, efficiency
References
1.Federal`ny`j reestr svedenij o deyatel`nosti yurlicz. Rezul`taty` procedur v delax o bankrotstve za 2023 god // Oficial`ny`j internet-portal pravovoj informacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://download.fedresurs.ru/news/Bankrotstva%20statreliz%20na%20sajt%202023/.
2.Oficial`ny`j internet-sajt Rosfinmonitoringa [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.fedsfm.ru.
3.Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva RF ot 29 maya 2004 g. № 257 «Ob obespechenii interesov Rossijskoj Federacii kak kreditora v dele o bankrotstve i v procedurax, primenyaemy`x v dele o bankrotstve» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2004. 7 iyunya. № 23. St. 2310.
4.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 26.10.2002 № 127-FZ «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)» (red. ot 13.07.2020) // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2002. 28 oktyabrya. № 43. St. 4190.
5.Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva RF ot 27.12.2004 № 855 «Ob utverzhdenii Vremenny`x pravil proverki arbitrazhny`m upravlyayushhim nalichiya priznakov fiktivnogo i prednamerennogo bankrotstva» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2004. 27 dekabrya. № 52. Ch. 2. St. 5519.
6.Kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ob administrativny`x pravonarusheniyax ot 31.12.2001 № 195-FZ (red. ot 16.04.2022) // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2001. № 256. 31 dekabrya.
7.Ugolovny`j kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (UK RF) ot 13.06.1996 № 63-FZ // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 1996. 17 iyulya. № 25. St. 2954.
8.Agentstvo pravovoj informacii (internet-SMI, svidetel`stvo Federal`noj sluzhboj po nadzoru v sfere svyazi, informacionny`x texnologij i massovy`x kommunikacij № FS 77–63321) // Oficial`ny`j internet-portal pravovoj informacii. Razdel «Ugolovnoe sudoproizvodstvo. Danny`e o naznachennom nakazanii po stat`e UK RF» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://legalpress.ru/.
9.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 01.07.2021 № 241-FZ «O vnesenii izmenenij v stat`i 195 i 196 Ugolovnogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii i stat`yu 31 Ugolovno-processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2021. 5 iyulya. № 27. Ch. I. St. 5069.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
The Concept of «Tax» in the Socio-Philosophical Dimension
RODIONOVA Alina Aleksandrovna
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Administrative and Information Law of Faculty of Law named after M.M. Speransky of Institute of Law and National Security Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Advocate of Moscow Bar Association «R&M Defence»
119571, Moscow, Vernadsky Ave., 84, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article examines the philosophy of tax, its generic origin and the main aspects of society’s perception of the state’s tax system on the basis of a socio-philosophical approach to the concept of «tax». The author analyzes the relationship between the state and society through the prism of taxation through the interpretation of tax and the attitude of famous philosophers, economists, and public figures towards it. As a result of the study of this issue, the problem of public trust in the fiscal system is identified and possible ways to solve the problem are determined.
Keywords: philosophy of tax, social and philosophical aspect of tax, fiscal system, taxation
References
1.Piskotin M.I. Sovetskoe byudzhetnoe pravo (os-novny`e problemy`). M.: Yuridicheskaya literatura, 1971. S. 62–66.
2.Marks K., E`ngel`s F. Sochineniya. T. 21. S. 171.
3.Be`kon F. Sochineniya: v 2 t. M., 1972. T. 2. S. 416.
4.Zh. Simond de Sismondi. Novy`e nachala polite`ko-nomii. M., 1897. S. 135–149.
5.Shherbatov M.M. O povrezhdenii nravov v Rossii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://az.lib.ru/s/sherbatow_ m_m/text_1787_o_povrezhdenii_nravov.shtml.
6.Gegel` G.V.F. Raboty` razny`x let. T. 1. M.: My`sl`, 1970. S. 14.
7.HarvardX: Justice Michael Sandel [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.edx.org/learn/justice/harvard-university-justice.
8.Karimbekova A.S. Problema nalogooblozheniya s social`no-filosofskoj tochki zreniya // Molodoj ucheny`j. 2017. № 18 (152). S. 214–217 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://moluch.ru/archive/152/43163.
9.Vetoshko K.A. Nalogi – social`no-filosofskij aspekt // Vestnik BGU. 2011. № 3 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/nalogi-sotsialno-filosofskiy-aspekt.
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12.Makiavelli Nikkolo. Gosudar`. M.: Planeta, 1990.
13.Vinogradova I.V. Upravlenie social`no-e`konomicheskim razvitiem regionov na osnove optimizacii nalogovy`x nagruzok: avtoref. dis. ... kand. e`kon. nauk. Orel, 2004.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Basic Scientific Approaches to Understanding the Category of Legal Nature
KHABIBULLIN Aidar Robertovich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Theory and History of State and Law of Faculty of Law of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University
420008, Kazan, st. Kremlevskaya, 18, of. 145, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article highlights and analyzes the main scientific approaches to understanding the legal nature as a legal category. The author believes that these are philosophical, substantial, sociological, formal legal and lexical approaches. At the same time, they are exposed to the qualitative features that each of the methodological techniques of cognition focuses on.
Keywords: legal nature, legal nature, legal category
References
1.Filosofskij slovar` / pod red. I.T. Frolova. 7-e izd., pererab i dop. M.: Respublika, 2001. S. 237.
2.Kratkij filosofskij slovar` / pod red. M. Rozentalya i P. Yudina. 3-e izd, pererab. i dop. M.: Gos. izd-vo Politicheskoj literatury`, 1951. S. 183.
3.Filosofskij e`nciklopedicheskij slovar` / gl. red. L.F. Il`ichev. M.: Sov. e`nciklopediya, 1983.
4.Duraev T.A., Tyumeneva N.V. Pravovaya priroda kak kategoriya pravovedeniya // Vestnik Saratovskoj gosudarstvennoj yuridicheskoj akademii. 2022. № 6 (149). S. 21.
5.Esimuratov A.E. K voprosu ob e`timologii i e`timo-logicheskom analize // Academy. 2017. № 3(18). S. 52.
6.Komissarova E.G. Formal`no logicheskie aspekty` ponyatiya «Pravovaya priroda» // Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Yuridicheskie nauki. 2012. № 2. S. 23.
7.Aslanyan N. P., Novikova T.P. Interpretaciya termina «pravovaya priroda» // Baikal Research Journal. 2018. Vol. 9. № 4.
8.Matveev I.V. Pravovaya priroda nedejstvitel`ny`x sdelok. M.: Yurditinform, 2004. S. 5.
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10.Filipenko I.A. Pravovaya priroda s tochki zreniya filosofii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://zakon.ru/blog/ 2022/04/26/pravovaya_priroda_s_tochki_zreniya_filosofii.
11.Malyugin S.V. Kategoriya «pravovaya priroda»: ponyatie, determinanty`, osnovny`e xarakteristiki i podxody` k opredeleniyu // Rossijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2016. № 3. S. 46–58.
12.Zaxarov V.A. Sozdanie yuridicheskix licz: pravovy`e voprosy`. M.: Norma, 2002. S. 52.
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14.Shxapaceva M.X., Pazova L.M. K voprosu o leksicheskom znachenii slova // Vestnik Ady`gejskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 2. Filologiya i iskusstvovedenie. 2014. № 1 (134). S. 121–127.
15.Aslanyan N.P., Novikova T.V. Prolegomeny` k interpretacii termina «pravovaya priroda» // Baikal Research Journal. 2017. Vol. 8. № 4.
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POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Theory and Practice of Attraction to Legal Responsibility of Executive Bodies of Joint-Stock Companies with State Participation
YAKOVLEV Alexander Yurievich
Doctor of Political Sciences, leading Researcher of Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences
117218, Moscow, Nakhimovsky pr., 32, Russian Federation
Abstract: In the functioning of legal entities, especially large ones, situations inevitably arise in which they violate various legal norms for which certain liability is provided. The growing trend of growth in the number of organizations with state participation forces us to pay even closer attention to their work. In this scientific work the following issues will be considered: approaches to the concept of «legal responsibility», its features and types.
Keywords: joint-stock company, joint-stock company with state participation, state joint-stock company, legal liability, prosecution
References
1.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 23.06.2016 № 182-FZ «Ob osnovax sistemy` profilaktiki pravonarushenij v Rossijskoj Federacii» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.consultant.ru.
2.Vechernin D.S. E`volyuciya instituta ocenki reguliruyushhego vozdejstviya: problemy` i perspektivy` // Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta: Yurisprudenciya. 2014. № 4. S. 22–28.
3.Glazunova I.V. Problemny`e voprosy` publichno-pravovoj otvetstvennosti yuridicheskogo licza // Sibirskoe yuridicheskoe obozrenie. 2019. № 4. S. 512–517.
4.Nersesyancz V.S. Teoriya prava i gosudarstva: kratkij uchebny`j kurs. M.: Norma: INFRA-M., 2013.
5.Pavlov A.Yu., Danilov I.A. O kriteriyax subsidiarnoj otvetstvennosti // Yuridicheskij mir. 2022. № 3. S. 48–49.
6.Petuxov S.V., Racheeva Yu.V. Subsidiarnaya otvetstvennost` kontroliruyushhix licz v kontekste principa pravovoj opredelennosti // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2023. № 3. S. 62–65.
7.Pravo: uchebnik i praktikum dlya vuzov / pod red. S.G. Kiseleva, A.Yu. Yakovleva. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Yurajt, 2024.
8.Svirina L.N. Aktual`ny`e napravleniya podgotovki upravlencheskix kadrov novogo pokoleniya vo vzaimosvyazi s resheniem zadach povy`sheniya kachestva i rezul`tativnosti gosudarstvennogo upravleniya // Biznes. Obrazovanie. Pravo. 2020. № 2. S. 93–97.
9.Svirina L.N. Professional`ny`e standarty` kak mexanizm povy`sheniya kachestva podgotovki specialistov v sfere gosudarstvennogo i korporativnogo upravleniya // Menedzhment i biznes-administrirovanie. 2020. № 3. S. 42–50.
10.Smotriczkaya I.I., Anchishkina O.V., Cherny`x S.I. Problemy` i strategicheskie zadachi razvitiya instituta obshhestvenny`x zakupok // Problemy` prognozirovaniya. 2017. № 5. S. 70–78.
11.Smotriczkaya I.I., Frolova N.D. Osobennosti razvitiya instituta korporativnogo upravleniya v rossijskoj e`konomike // Obshhestvo i e`konomika. 2023. № 3. S. 5–16.
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13.Tolkovy`j slovar` russkogo yazy`ka: v 4 t. T. II / pod red. D.N. Ushakova. M.: Gos. izd-vo inostranny`x i nacional`ny`x slovarej, 1938.
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Overview of the Positions of the International Community on the Reform of the UN Security Council of the United Nations
FIRSOV Yuri Ivanovich
Head of the Center for International Law
0012, Yerevan, David Sasuntsy str., 80, office 1, Republic of Armenia
Abstract: The UN Security Council is the leading body in the UN system with the authority to form and establish the international legal order and make decisions in the field of international security. Competition in the international arena and geopolitics have an impact on international law and order and security. Since the Caribbean crisis, the issue of the powers and reform of the UN Security Council has become relevant. The article examines the positions of a number of countries and international organizations on the issue of reforming the UN Security Council. The relevance of the topic is due to the role of the United Nations in modern international relations. Due to the uncertainty in modern international relations, as a result of which the participants in international relations have formed their own principles of international law.
The article provides a comparative analysis of the positions of states, groups of states and international organizations on the issue of UN reform and states the need to further strengthen cooperation among participants in international relations in the interests of reforming the UN Security Council and the future world order.
Keywords: Security Council reform; international cooperation; foreign policy; bilateral relations
References
1.Vlasova K.V. Timchenko V.A. Reforma OON i ee vliyanie na sovremennuyu sistemu mezhdunarodny`x otnoshenij // Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. 2022. № 476. S. 121–129.
2.Kiku D. Reformirovanie Soveta Bezopasnosti OON: Pro et contra // Rossijskij sovet po mezhdunarodny`m delam. 2018 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://russiancouncil.ru/analytics-and-comments/analytics/reformirovaniesoveta-bezopasnosti-oon-pro-et-contra/?sphrase_id=59052212.
3.Lavrov: Indiya i Braziliya dolzhny` by`t` predstavleny` v SB OON v rezul`tate ego reformy` // TASS. 2020. 15 yanvarya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://tass.ru/politika/7521785.
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7.Sergeev V.E. Reforma Soveta Bezopasnosti OON: poziciya Rossii i zarubezhny`x stran // Rossiya: obshhestvo, politika, istoriya. Mezhdunarodny`e otnosheniya. 2022. № 1 (1) (mart). S. 49–62.
8.Sovet Bezopasnosti OON: Oficial`ny`j sajt [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.un.org/securitycouncil/ru/content/faq#nonpermanent.
9.Trinkunas H. Brazil’s Rise. Seeking Influence on Global Governance // Latin American Initiative Policy at Brookings. 2014. P. 8–9.
10.Usov V.A. Voprosy` reformy` Soveta Bezopasnosti OON vo vzaimodejstvii Indii i stran Afriki // Problemy` nacional`noj strategii. 2020. № 5 (62). S. 91–107.
11.Filatov S. Demarsh Saudovskoj Aravii: mesto v Sovbeze OON ej ne po pravu // Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn`. 2013 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://interaffairs.ru/news/show/1012.
12.Franciya i Organizaciya Ob``edinenny`x Nacij // Oficial`ny`j sajt MID Francii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.diplomatie.gouv.fr/ru/politique-etrangere/franciya-i-organizaciya-ob-edinennyh-nacij.
13.Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov’s remarks and answers to questions at a plenary session of the Raisina Dialogue international conference, New Delhi, January 15, 2020 // The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.mid.ru/en/posledniye_dobavlnenniye//asset_publisher/MCZ7HQuMdqBY/content/id/3994885.
14.Ghana joins UN Security Council // Online Nigeria. 2005. October, 12 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://nm.onlinenigeria.com/templates/?a=5552&z=9.
15.Gordon N., Gowan R. Pathways to Security Council Reform // Center on International Cooperation. New York University. 2014. May. P. 8 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cic.nyu.edu/sites/default/files/pathways_sc_reform_final.pdf.
16.Handbook on Security Council Reform 2018.R. 47.
17.India, Africa should accelerate UNSC reforms: South Africa’s BRICS Sherpa, India Writes Network, by Anil Sooklal, 1 June 2020 // International Relations and Cooperation. Republic of South Africa [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: www.dirco.gov.za/docs/2020/unsc0601.htm.
18.Remarks by the President to the Joint Session of the Indian Parliament in New Delhi, India // The White House. 2010 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2010/11/08/remarks-presidentjoint-session-indian-parliament-new-delhi-india.
19.Report of the Intergovernmental Negotiations on Security Council Reform // WFUNA. Sixth Session. 2020. January, 7 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://wfuna.org/files/inline-files/ga_ign_report_ of_the_intergovernmental_negotiations_on_ security_council_reform.pdf.
20.The Common African Position on the Proposed Reform of the United Nations: «The Ezulwini Consensus». 2005 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.apaunr.org/AU_Ezulwini%20Consensus.pdf.
21.«Mir bol`she pyati»: E`rdogan prizval reformirovat` Sovbez OON. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://news.ru/vlast/mir-bolshe-pyati-erdogan-prizval-reformirovat-sovbez-oon/?ysclid=lw0eoyh1hv568003093.
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Geographical Indications Under Japanese law
SEDOV Petr Denisovich
Postgraduate Student of Faculty of Law of Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
125167, Moscow, Leningradsky Ave., 49/2, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article is devoted to current aspects of the regulation of geographical indications in Japan. It is noted that the legal regulation of Japan has a number of features that are unique to this jurisdiction. In Russia, geographical indications appeared relatively recently and are just beginning to become a popular means of individualization. Due to the fact that the civil legislation of the Russian Federation regulating geographical indications has just appeared, the study of foreign regulatory experience will make it possible to successfully adapt this experience for Russia. It seems that in the near future it is necessary to continue active regulatory and practical work towards improving the mechanism of legal regulation of geographical indications.
Keywords: geographical indication, registration system, appellation of origin, intellectual property, Japan
References
1.Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` chetvertaya) ot 18.12.2006 № 230-FZ // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 2006. 25 dekabrya. № 52. Ch. 1. St. 5496.
2.Soglashenie ob e`konomicheskom partnerstve mezhdu ES i Yaponiej [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://policy.trade.ec.europa.eu/eu-trade-relationships-country-and-region/countries-and-regions/japan/eu-japan-agreement_en.
3.Zakon Yaponii «Ob oxrane naimenovanij konkretny`x sel`skoxozyajstvenny`x, lesny`x i ry`bny`x produktov i produktov pitaniya» (Zakon № 84 ot 25.06.2014) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://wipolex.wipo.int/ru/text/431679.
4.Gavrilov E`.P. Nuzhna principial`no novaya pravovaya sistema dlya geograficheskix ukazanij i naimenovanij mest proisxozhdeniya tovara // Xozyajstvo i pravo. 2020. № 5. S. 27–32.
5.Ruzakova O.A., Pirogov A.I. Geograficheskie ukazaniya kak sredstvo individualizacii tovarov: perspektivy` razvitiya rossijskogo zakonodatel`stva // E`konomika. Pravo. Obshhestvo. 2018. № 4(16). S. 6–11.
6.Kratkij otchet Rospatenta za 2023 g. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://rospatent.gov.ru/content/uploadfiles/annual-report-2023-short-version.pdf.
7.Rukovodstvo zayavitelya po geograficheskomu ukazaniyu (GI) Yaponii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.maff.go.jp/e/policies/intel/gi_act/index.html.
8.Geograficheskie ukazaniya: Oficial`ny`j sajt Yaponskoj sistemy` registracii geograficheskix ukazanij [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://gi-act.maff.go.jp/en/outline.html.
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
The Moratorium in the Bankruptcy Legislation of the Russian Federation: a Comparative Analysis of Legislation from 1992 to the Present Day
VRACHEVA Julia Sergeevna
Postgraduate student of St. Petersburg State University of Economics, Arbitration Manager
191023, St. Petersburg, nab. Griboyedov Canal, 30-32, letter A, Russian Federation
Abstract: The purpose of the work is to consider the institution of a moratorium in bankruptcy legislation in its historical development, to analyze the concept, content and features of the institution of a moratorium in bankruptcy legislation. The historical method, the method of system analysis, formal legal and other methods were used. The article examines aspects of the development and changes in the regulatory regulation of the provisions on the moratorium as a legal means aimed at restoring the solvency of individuals and legal entities, with an assessment of the features of the moratorium in the bankruptcy of financial organizations.
Keywords: moratorium, external management, suspension of obligations, restoration of solvency, judicial installments
References
1.Morduxaj-Boltovskij I.D. Zakon 06 aprelya 1915 goda ob otsrochke i rassrochke ispolneniya obyazatel`stv i sudebny`x reshenij // Tekst i opy`t kommentariya. Petrograd: Senatskaya tipografiya, 1915. S. 13.
2.Vindshejd B. Ob obyazatel`stvax po rimskomu pravu / per. s nem. pod red. i s prim. red.-izdatelya «Sudebnogo Vestnika» A.B. Dumashevskogo. SPb., 1875. C. 59–60.
3.Telyukina M.V. Osnovy` konkursnogo prava. M.: Volters Kluver, 2004. S. 347.
4.Popondopulo V.F. Kommentarij k zakonu «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)»: Postatejny`j nauchno-prakticheskij / pod red. V.F. Popondopulo. 4-e izd., ispr. i dop. M.: Prospekt, 2015 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://knigogid.ru/books/1935595-kommentariy-k-zakonu-o-nesostoyatelnosti-bankrotstve-postateynyy-nauchno-prakticheskiy/toread/page-320.
5.Koraev K.B. Moratorij i restrukturizaciya dolga kak pravovy`e instrumenty` vosstanovleniya platezhesposobnosti dolzhnika // Yurist. 2022. № 3. S. 12–16.
6.Gabov A.V. Moratorij v rossijskom grazhdanskom prave: Priroda, osobennosti primeneniya i perspektivy` razvitiya regulirovaniya // Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2022. № 4. S. 56–78; № 5. S. 66.
7.Pustovalov E.Yu. Sud`ba trebovanij kreditorov pri bankrotstve dolzhnika. M.: Statut, 2003. S. 270. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus». S. 74.
8.El`yashevich V.B. Vojna i grazhdanskij oborot (k voprosu o moratoriyax). Petrograd, 1914. S. 9.
9.Punkt 7 Postanovleniya Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii ot 24.12.2020 № 44 «O nekotory`x voprosax primeneniya polozhenij stat`i 9.1 Federal`nogo zakona ot 26 oktyabrya 2002 goda № 127-FZ «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2021. № 2 (12 yanvarya). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
10.Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 12.03.2001 № 4-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti ryada polozhenij Federal`nogo zakona «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)», kasayushhixsya vozmozhnosti obzhalovaniya opredelenij, vy`nosimy`x Arbitrazhny`m sudom po delam o bankrotstve, iny`x ego polozhenij, stat`i 49 Federal`nogo zakona «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve) kreditny`x organizacij», a takzhe statej 106, 160, 179 i 191 Arbitrazhnogo processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii, v svyazi s zaprosom Arbitrazhnogo suda Chelyabinskoj oblasti, zhalobami grazhdan i yuridicheskix licz» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2021. № 57 (22 marta). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
11.Federal`ny`j zakon ot 08.01.1998 № 6-FZ (red. ot 21.03.2002, s izm. ot 01.10.2002) «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 1998. № 11 (21 yanvarya). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
12.Informacionnoe pis`mo Prezidiuma VAS RF ot 07.08.1997 № 20 «Obzor praktiki primeneniya arbitrazh-ny`mi sudami zakonodatel`stva o nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)» // Vestnik VAS RF. 1997. № 10. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
13.Informacionnoe pis`mo VAS RF ot 25.04.1995 № S1-7/OP-237 // Vestnik VAS RF. 1995. № 7. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
14.Zakon RF ot 19.11.1992 № 3929-1 «O nesostoya-tel`nosti (bankrotstve) predpriyatij» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 1992. № 279 (30 dekabrya). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
15.Federal`ny`j zakon № 127-FZ ot 26.10.2002 (v red. ot 25.12.2023) «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)» (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 05.01.2024) // Rossijskaya gazeta. 1998. № 209–210 (2 noyabrya). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
 
POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
Criminal Legislative Rules Establishing Criminal Liability for the Waste Management Rules Infringement in the European Union
KOLB Anastasiya Aleksandrovna
Lecturer at the Department of Criminal Law of the Northwestern Institute of Management, a branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, advocate of the St. Petersburg Bar Chamber.
199178, St. Petersburg, Sredny prospekt V.O., 57/43, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article considers the experience of legislative regulation of criminal liability for violations of the rules of waste management in the member states of the European Union, which have shown the greatest efficiency in building the system of waste management.
The analysis of the criminal legislation of these countries in terms of responsibility for the illegal handling of waste allows us to conclude that it is advisable to introduce foreign experience in terms of introducing into the criminal law of the Russian Federation independent criminal legal norms containing the elements of the crime, reflecting the peculiarities of the illegal handling of waste.
The study of peculiarities of regulation of criminal liability for illegal handling of wastes in the legislation of foreign countries led to the conclusion that for Russia the most acceptable as a borrowing is the legislative experience of Germany and Latvia, which consists in fixing criminal liability for illegal handling of waste in the framework of a separate article, which formulates a number of corpus delicti of crimes with a single subject in the form of waste.
Keywords: environmental crime, waste, illegal dumping sites, waste management, criminal liability, European Union legislation, illegal waste management, comparative law, criminal law doctrine
References
1.German Criminal Code / Ugolovny`j kodeks Germanii // Federal Ministry of Justice and consumer protection: sajt [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/englisch_stgb/englisch_stgb.html#p0091.
2.Guidance for Prosecutors of Waste Crime / Rukovodstvo po rassledovaniyu del, svyazanny`x s narusheniem pravil obrashheniya s otxodami [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.wasteforceproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/D4.3-WasteForce-Guidance-for-Prosecutors-of-Waste-Crime.pdf.
3.Latvian criminal code / Ugolovny`j kodeks Latvii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://docs.yandex.ru/docs/view?tm=1708201071&tld=ru&lang=en&name=Criminal%20Code%20of%20Latvia.pdf&text=latvian%20criminal%20code&url=https%3A%2F%2Flegislationline.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2F2023-10%2FCriminal%2520Code%2520of%2520Latvia.pdf&lr=2&mime=pdf&l10n=ru&type=touch&sign=93b207e6e88d03d724996650cd9e2bf0&keyno=0&serpParams=tm%3D1708201071%26tld%3Dru%26lang%3Den%26name%3DCriminal%2520Code%2520of%2520Latvia.pdf%26text%3Dlatvian%2Bcriminal%2Bcode%26url%3Dhttps%253A%2F%2Flegislationline.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2F2023-10%2FCriminal%252520Code%252520of%252520Latvia.pdf%26lr%3D2%26mime%3Dpdf%26l10n%3Dru%26type%3Dtouch%26sign%3D93b207e6e88d03d724996650cd9e2bf0%26keyno%3D0.
4.The Criminal Code of Finland / Ugolovny`j kodeks Finlyandii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1889/en18890039_20210433.pdf.
5.The Penal code of Estonia / Ugolovny`j kodeks Respubliki E`stoniya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.riigiteataja.ee/en/eli/522012015002/consolide.
6.The Waste Act of Finland / Zakon ob otxodax Finlyandii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2011/en20110646_20220494.pdf.
7.Waste and human health: Evidence and needs / Otxody` i zdorov`e cheloveka: realii i perspektivy` [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/317226/Waste-human-health-Evidence-needs-mtg-report.pdf.
8.Waste recycling in Europe / Utilizaciya otxodov v Evrope [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.eea.europa.eu/en/analysis/indicators/waste-recycling-in-europe.
9.Which European countries recycle the most? / Kakie evropejskie strany` lidiruyut po utilizacii otxodov? [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.eureporter.co/environment/2021/09/01/which-european-countries-recycle-the-most.
10.Kolb A.A. Otxody` proizvodstva i potrebleniya kak predmet prestupleniya, predusmotrennogo st. 247 UK RF // Agrarnoe i zemel`noe pravo. 2022. № 4 (208). S. 104–109.
11.Kolb A.A. Problemy` kvalifikacii narusheniya pravil obrashheniya s tverdy`mi kommunal`ny`mi otxodami po st. 247 UK RF // Agrarnoe i zemel`noe pravo. 2020. № 11 (191). S. 154–158.