NEWS
Интервью с членом Совета Федеральной палаты адвокатов Российской Федерации, Президентом Адвокатской палаты Республики Башкортостан Б.Г. Юмадиловым.: Интервью с Председателем Президиума Саратовской специализированной коллегии адвокатов, заслуженным юристом Российской Федерации, кандидатом юридических наук, профессором Н.П. Царевой: Интервью с доктором юридических наук, профессором, председателем Научно-консультативного и экспертного Совета Гильдии российских адвокатов, членом Научно-консультативного Совета Федеральной палаты адвокатов РФ, членом Научно-консультативного Совета при Ве: Интервью с вице-президентом Федеральной палаты адвокатов Российской Федерации С.И. Володиной: Интервью с доктором юридических наук, профессором, президентом Гильдии российских адвокатов, ректором Российской академии адвокатуры и нотариата Гасаном Борисовичем Мирзоевым:








RUS ENG
EVENTS
«Digital lawyers of the year» were identified in Russia

PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
Melnichenko R.G.
«The Formers» in advocacy profession
Purpose: Identify and problematize such a phenomenon as «formers» in the Russian legal profession.
Methods: The statistical, hermeneutical and comparative legal methods were used.
Results: Identified the problem of rejection of the «assimilation» of persons who received the status of advocates after working in government agencies.
Novelty/originality/value: Lack of research on the classification of the legal profession based on their past professional experience.
Keywords: bar, segregation of lawyers, former, bar chambers, civil service.
References (transliterated)
1.Markov A.N. Pravila advokatskoj professii v Rossii: opy`t sistematizacii postanovlenij sovetov prisyazhny`x poverenny`x po voprosam professional`noj e`tiki / sost. chl. soveta prisyazhny`x poverenny`x okruga Moskovskoj sudebnoj palaty` A.N. Markov. M.: Tip. O.L. Somovoj, 1913. X, 429.
2.https://vk.com/wall-195284407_94.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING Ragulin A.V.
The Code of Professional Ethics of Advocate as a Means of Fighting Criticism in the Advocacy
Purpose: To study the problems of using the Code of Professional Ethics of Advocate by the corporate governance bodies of the Advocacy as a means of combating criticism of the activities of these bodies.
Methodology: The methods of structural and functional analysis, the systemic method, the formal-legal method, the method of studying documents, the method of participatory observation were used.
Results: In the article, based on the study of the ethical and legal basis of the functioning of the advocacy profession and the study of the current situation in the advocacy profession of Russia, and on the basis of the materials of specific cases, the problems of using the corporate governance bodies of the advocacy profession (Advocate`s chambers of the subjects of the Russian Federation and the Federal Chamber of Advocates of the Russian Federation ) of the Code of Professional Ethics of Advocate as a means of dealing with criticism is discovered.
It is concluded that the Code of Professional Ethics of Advocate, in the hands of unscrupulous representatives of the chambers of advocates, is the effective mean of combating criticism in the advocacy profession. It is noted that by virtue of the provisions of Art. 39 of the Federal Law «On advocacy and the advocacy profession in the Russian Federation» the public associations of advocates do not yet have broad rights to directly influence the activities of corporate governance bodies in terms of protecting advocates from unjustified disciplinary prosecution. The introduction of a general prohibition on the prosecution of advocates for criticism of corporate governance bodies is proposed, directly enshrined in the law or in the text of the Code of Professional Ethics of Advocate, which could be formulated roughly as follows: «It is unacceptable to use disciplinary proceedings against the advocate in order to prosecute him for his position on the case, as well as for expressing critical remarks, including regarding the activities of the advocacy self-government bodies, their leaders and employees.».
Novelty/originality/value: The article is of scientific value, since it is a study of modern problems of the organization of the advocacy profession.
Keywords: advocacy, advocate, development of advocacy, problems of advocacy, Appeal of 32 advocates, advocate ethics, Code of Professional Ethics of Advocate.
References (transliterated)
1.Ragulin A.V., Mirzoev G.B. Pravovoj status advokatury` v Rossijskoj Federacii: osnovny`e vy`vody` issledovaniya // Ucheny`e trudy` Rossijskoj akademii advokatury` i notariata. 2020. № 1 (56). S. 5–11.
2.Ragulin A.V. Traktat ob Obrashhenii 32-x, principax, diskriminacii i demokratii v rossijskoj advokature: monografiya / predisl.: G.B. Mirzoev, poslesl.: A.V. Vorob`ev. M.: Rossijskaya akademiya advokatury` i notariata: Evrazijskij nauchno-issledovatel`skij institut problem prava, 2019.
3.https://apur.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=449&catid=49&Itemid=100002&fbclid=IwAR1Fjc26hef4ddlxj5Ni8TM8x1p9UhDTTH_Eg6W_lLvgCKP4PyzlGuidiag.
4.https://legal.report/igor-trunov-ne-budet-izvinyatsya-pered-advokatskoj-palatoj. 5. https://legal.report/advokata-igorya-trunova-izgonyayut-iz-professii.
5.https://legal.report/igor-trunov-lishen-advokatskogo-statusa-no-ne-nameren-sdavatsya.
6.https://legal.report/lefortovskij-sud-vernul-advokatskij-status-igoryu-trunovu.
7.http://rapsinews.ru/judicial_analyst/20170112/ 277552728.html.
8.Ragulin A.V. K voprosu o nezakonnosti polozhenij raz``yasneniya Komissii po e`tike i standartam Federal`noj palaty` advokatov Rossijskoj Federacii № 03/19 i raz``yasneniya IX Vserossijskogo S``ezda advokatov «Ob advokatskoj e`tike» // Osnovny`e napravleniya sovershenstvovaniya advokatskoj deyatel`nosti i advokatury` v Rossijskoj Federacii: perspektivy` razvitiya advokatskogo soobshhestva: special`ny`j tematicheskij sbornik materialov mezhvuzovskoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii 12 oktyabrya 2019 g. M.: Izdatel`stvo Moskovskogo gumanitarnogo universiteta, 2019. S. 96–104.
9.Ragulin A.V. Reshenie suda po «sekretnomu isku» advokata A.R. Ramaldanova k Federal`noj palate advokatov Rossijskoj Federacii: «nezakonnost`» i «pozitivnoe soderzhanie» // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2020. № 3 (46).
10.Ragulin A.V., Ganzha A.P. Ya – za otkry`ty`j dostup v advokaturu! Interv`yu s Prezidentom Palaty` advokatov Respubliki Altaj Aleksandrom Petrovichem Ganzhoj // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2020. № 3 (46).
11.Disciplinarnoe proizvodstvo v otnoshenii advokatov v stranax SNG: analiz mezhdunarodnogo prava i standartov: Legal opinion. 18 iyunya 2013 g. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.icj.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/CIS-icj-opinion-lawyers-discipline-law-advocacy-analysis-brief-2013-rus.pdf.
12.https://fparf.ru/news/fpa/novyy-format-privychnogo-dialoga/?fbclid=IwAR2JmTkLUEiMG8k-J3e7ry12y4C5H-bwE1nstW-zHZ3mrQhCi89xbMXJcCo.
13.https://doslovno.rf/znachenie/kritika.
14.https://advgazeta.livejournal.com/25183.html.
15.http://dostupkpravosudiyu.blogspot.com/2019/08/blog-post_20.html.
16.https://advstreet.ru/article/advokat-valekh-abbasov-otsudil-status/.
17.https://kirovsky—bkr.sudrf.ru/modules.php?name=
sud_delo&srv_num=1&name_op=doc&number=
114970706&delo_id=1540005&new=0&text_number=
1&fbclid=IwAR12Rl67-miWV_WXTgKfP30N8NqYZdsbn69NFJzWwGRJnyWBtoj3Kv3_gTQ.
18.https://kirovsky—bkr.sudrf.ru/modules.php?name=sud_delo&srv_num=1&name_op=case&case_id=95992232&case_uid=a149a6fc-dae1-41e2-942f-26c2cba74362&delo_id=1540005.
19.https://vs—bkr.sudrf.ru/modules.php?name=sud_delo&srv_num=1&name_op=case&case_id=16925362&case_uid=c4d67f3b-ea20-4709-b753-4181ae4fab70&delo_id=5&new=5.
20.https://kirovsky—bkr.sudrf.ru/modules.php?name=sdp2#id=1_9c78dc4c4c1e67b9570d1506a29b3d5a&shard=r03&from=p&r=%7B%22groups%22:%5B%22r31%22%5D,%22sortField%22:%22case_common_doc_entry_date%22,%22sorts%22:%5B%7B%22field%22:%22case_common_doc_entry_date%22,%22order%22:%22desc%22%7D%5D,%22type%22:%22MULTIQUERY%22,%22multiqueryRequest%22:%7B%22queryRequests%22:%5B%7B%22type%22:%22Q%22,%22request%22:%22%7B%5C%22mode%5C%22:%5C%22EXTENDED%5C%22,%5C%22typeRequests%5C%22:%5B%7B%5C%22fieldRequests%5C%22:%5B%7B%5C%22name%5C%22:%5C%22case_common_parts_name_cat%5C%22,%5C%22operator%5C%22:%5C%22SW%5C%22,%5C%22query%5C%22:%5C%22vojcex%20a.v.%5C%22%7D%5D,%5C%22mode%5C%22:%5C%22AND%5C%22,%5C%22name%5C%22:%5C%22common%5C%22,%5C%22typesMode%5C%22:%5C%22AND%5C%22%7D%5D%7D%22,%22operator%22:%22AND%22,%22queryRequestRole%22:%22CATEGORIES%22%7D,%7B%22type%22:%22SQ%22,%22queryId%22:%228cc5147a-c231-4fc3-a05a-21898c13e572%22,%22operator%22:%22AND%22%7D%5D%7D,%22simpleSearchFieldsBundle%22:null,%22noOrpho%22:false%7D.
21.https://www.facebook.com/romanmelnichenko/videos/3391984924197330/.
22.http://www.eurasian-advocacy.ru/vse-novosti/2548-sudebnye-spory-i-sotsialnye-modeli-sovremennoj-rossijskoj-advokatury-otvety-i-voprosy-vitse-prezidentu-federalnoj-palaty-advokatov-rossijskoj-federatsii.
23.http://www.consultant.ru/cons/cgi/online.cgi?req=
doc&base=KSOJ002&n=680&dst=100029#07061875121251946.
24.Postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 3 fevralya 2011 goda po delu «Igor` Kabanov (Igor Kabanov) protiv Rossijskoj Federacii» (zhaloba № 8921/05) // Byulleten` Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka. 2011. № 9.
25.Postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 15 dekabrya 2005 goda po delu «Kiprianu (Kyprianou) protiv Kipra» (zhaloba № 73797/01) // Byulleten` Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka. 2006. № 7.
26.Postanovlenie Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka ot 28 oktyabrya 2003 g. po delu «P.S. (P.S.) protiv Niderlandov» (zhaloba № 39657/98) // Byulleten` Evropejskogo Suda po pravam cheloveka. 2004. № 2.
27.https://pravo.ru/news/view/143117.
28.Mel`nichenko R.G. Tri voprosa po delu Vitaliya Burkina // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2018. №1 (32).
29.https://pravo.ru/story/203114/.
30.https://apur.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1278:rezolyutsiya-o-nedopustimosti-presledovaniya-advokatov-za-realizatsiyu-imi-svoikh-konstitutsionnykh-prav-i-o-vosstanovlenii-statusa-advokata-a-n-kazakova&catid=8&Itemid=18.
31.https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5a4201f2c5feaf1ea16b8ac9/advokatskie-hroniki—vypusk-3319-useknovenie-statusa-advokata-volkovu-dmitriiu-ivanovichu-5d598f1e5d636200ad693988.
32.http://www.gra.ru/index.php/2-uncategorised/660-gra2020-021.
 
PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING Naumov S.G.
The financial system of the russian advocacy
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to reveal the category «financial system of the advocacy».
Methodology: Theoretical and legal and comparative-analytical methods were used to study the issues.
Results: The article provides information about the structure and elements of the financial system of the advocacy. Was made an attempt to estimate the amount of financial resources of the advocacy. As a result the suggestion to implement the norms and principles of budget law to the advocacy`s legislation was formulated.
Novelty/originality/value: The revision and understanding of the financial aspects of the advocacy`s independence as the selfsufficiency of the legal profession required for its development.
Keywords: advocacy, financial system, advocacy fund, selfsufficiency, self-financing, program budgeting, advocacy`s infrastructure, financial policy.
References (transliterated)
1.Grazhdanskoe delo № 02-0136/2020 (UID 77RS0030-01-2019-008709-90) v Xamovnicheskom rajonnom sude g. Moskvy` [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://goo.su/3kQk.
2.Nauchno-prakticheskij kommentarij k Federal`nomu zakonu «Ob advokatskoj deyatel`nosti i advokature v Rossijskoj Federacii» (postatejny`j) / pod red. D.N. Kozaka. M.: Statut, 2003. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
3.Gregova Elena Yanovna. Rol` tret`ego sektora v sovremennoj e`konomike // Upravlencheskoe konsul`tirovanie. 2008. № 1 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/rol-tretiego-sektora-v-sovremennoy-ekonomike.
4.Bol`shaya rossijskaya e`nciklopediya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://bigenc.ru/economics/text/4713668.
5.Bol`shaya rossijskaya e`nciklopediya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://bigenc.ru/economics/text/4713687.
6.Advokatskaya monopoliya: kak izmerit` ob``em ry`nka yuridicheskix uslug [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://pravo.ru/story/view/125869/.
7.Otchet o rezul`tatax e`kspertno-analiticheskogo meropriyatiya «Analiz ispol`zovaniya sredstv federal`nogo byudzheta, predusmatrivaemy`x na oplatu truda advokatov, uchastvuyushhix v kachestve zashhitnika v ugolovnom processe po naznacheniyu suda, v 2016–2018 godax i tekushhem periode 2019 goda» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://goo.su/blinova.
8.Kulikov V. Zashhita v cene. Podschitana srednyaya stoimost` uslug advokata // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2019. № 187 (7945). 22 avgusta [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://rg.ru/2019/08/22/podschitana-sredniaia-stoimost-uslug-advokata.html.
9.Dolgozhdannoe postanovlenie [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://fparf.ru/news/fpa/dolgozhdannoe-postanovlenie.
10.Doklad o deyatel`nosti Ministerstva yusticii Rossijskoj Federacii v sfere obespecheniya grazhdan Rossijskoj Federacii besplatnoj yuridicheskoj pomoshh`yu za 2014 god [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://rg.ru/2015/05/19/minust-dok.html.
11.Ishina I.V. i dr. Finansy` nekommercheskix organizacij: uchebnik i praktikum dlya vuzov / pod red. I.V. Ishinoj. 2-e izd., per. i dop. M.: Yurajt, 2020. (Vy`sshee obrazovanie) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://urait.ru/bcode/450521.
12.Rezul`taty` audita otkry`tosti sajtov advokatskix palat [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://golosadvokata.ru/audit/comments.
13.Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva RF ot 22.05.2004 № 249 (red. ot 06.04.2011) «O merax po povy`sheniyu rezul`tativnosti byudzhetny`x rasxodov» (vmeste s «Koncepciej reformirovaniya byudzhetnogo processa v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2004–2006 godax», «Planom meropriyatij po realizacii Koncepcii reformirovaniya byudzhetnogo processa v Rossijskoj Federacii v 2004–2006 godax»). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
14.Makashina O.V. Byudzhetirovanie, orientirovannoe na rezul`tat // Vestnik IGE`U. 2008. № 1 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/byudzhetirovanie-orientirovannoe-na-rezultat.
15.Byudzhetirovanie, orientirovannoe na rezul`taty`: celi i principy`. Moskva, 20 dekabrya 2002 g. Otdel Makroe`konomicheskoj i otraslevoj politiki, sektor gosudarstvenny`x finansov. Moskovskoe otdelenie Niderlandskogo E`konomicheskogo Instituta, NEI-ECORYS, po zakazu Komissii ES [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20091122101637/http://www.ecorys.ru/rus/doc/act01_014.pdf.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Kudryavtsev V.L.
Disclosure of preliminary investigation data: some criminal law and criminal procedure problems in the light of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
Purpose: Research of some criminal-legal and criminal-procedural problems of disclosure of preliminary investigation data in the light of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: Formal-legal methods.
Results: The article reveals some criminal-legal and criminal-procedural problems of disclosure of preliminary investigation data in the light of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. It is established that a number of problems of disclosure of preliminary investigation data are interrelated in criminal law and criminal procedure related to the understanding of the relevant norms by the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation and their application in practice. It is concluded that the use in practice by lawyers of a number of legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation may create additional difficulties in protecting the constitutional rights and freedoms of individuals and citizens, access to justice, as well as in qualifying under article 310 of the criminal code.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a scientific value, representing a complex, interrelated analysis of some criminal law and criminal procedure problems of disclosure of preliminary investigation data in the light of the legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, existing both in theory and in practice.
Keywords: criminal law, disclosure of data from preliminary investigations, crimes against justice, composition of the crime, subjects of the crime, criminal procedure, inadmissibility of disclosure of data from preliminary investigations, lawyer, accused, legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.
References (transliterated)
1.Blinova E.V. Obespechenie nerazglasheniya danny`x dosudebnogo proizvodstva v ugolovnom processe: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2020.
2.Bobrakov I.A. Razglashenie danny`x predvaritel`no-go rassledovaniya // E`nciklopediya ugolovnogo prava. T. 28. Prestupleniya protiv pravosudiya. SPb.: MIE`P pri MPA EvrAZE`S, 2017. S. 1001–1015.
3.Brilliantov A.V., Kosevich N.R. Prestupleniya protiv pravosudiya, prepyatstvuyushhie obespecheniyu normal`noj deyatel`nosti suda i pravooxranitel`ny`x organov // Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Chasti obshhaya i osobennaya: uchebnik / pod red. A.V. Brilliantova. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Prospekt, 2016.
4.Vlasova N.A. Obespechenie tajny` predvaritel`nogo rassledovaniya // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2016. № 3. S. 147–150.
5.Kudryavcev V.L. Ugolovno-pravovaya oxrana svedenij o merax bezopasnosti, primenyaemy`x v otnoshenii sud`i i uchastnikov ugolovnogo processa v mexanizme realizacii principa oxrany` prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve // Oxrana prav i svobod cheloveka i grazhdanina v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve: materialy` Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. M.: MAE`P, 2011.
6.Kuzneczov A.P., Sidorov B.V. Konkretny`e vidy` prestuplenij protiv pravosudiya // Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Osobennaya chast`: uchebnik / pod red. F.R. Sundurova, M.V. Talan. M.: Statut, 2012. S. 749–848.
7.Maslov A.E. Sledstvennaya tajna kak sredstvo preodoleniya protivodejstviya rassledovaniyu: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Voronezh, 2001.
8.Nasonov S.A. Podpiska o nerazglashenii danny`x sledstviya: chto nuzhno znat` advokatu // Ugolovny`j process. 2018. № 12. S. 34–40.
9.Smol`kova I.V. Glasnost` i tajna v ugolovnom processe // Zakonnost`. 1998. № 7. S. 39–42.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Donets S.P.
Six reasons for the court to say: «No. Not guilty!»
Purpose: Research of the development of the doctrine of the crime in the doctrine of domestic and foreign criminal law in the Soviet and post-Soviet period.
Methodology: Historical-legal and formal legal methods were used.
Results: in this article, based on the study of signs of paired (correlated) with a minor act of categories (socially dangerous act – crime, crime structure, composition minor act formally contains the signs of the objective and subjective side of the offense), analysis methods and means of legislative technique (legal constructions, fictions, terminology) and the court practice in soletskiy and post-Soviet periods are the basis for the recognition trial, and the result of acts of non-criminal and criminal case’s termination (failure to initiate) in connection with minor acts (part 2 article 14 of the criminal code of the Russian Federation), as such, an action (omission) that did not cause harm to public relations, the formality of the elements of the crime, the provision of the act by the Criminal code, the absence of prohibition, public danger, real insignificance in the presence of a specified intent, fictitious qualifying signs are recognized.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a certain scientific value, since it is one of the first attempts to consider in the domestic doctrine of criminal law and practice the problems of qualifying crimes with the so-called signs of insignificance using such legislative techniques as fiction in criminal law and law.
Keywords: delicti, social danger, substantial harm, insignificance, socially dangerous act, unclassified intent, techniques and means of legislative technique, fiction.
References (transliterated)
1.Blagov E.V. Primenenie ugolovnogo prava (teoriya i praktika). SPb.: Yurid. centr Press, 2004. S. 27.
2.Ivanchin A.V., Kaplin M.N. Sluzhebny`e prestupleniya: ucheb. posob. Yaroslavl`, 2013. S. 77.
3.Kovalev M.I. Ponyatie i priznaki prestupleniya i ix znachenie dlya kvalifikacii. Sverdlovsk: Izd-vo Sverdlovskogo yurid in-ta, 1977. S. 77.
4.Kudryavcev V.N. Obshhaya teoriya kvalifikacii prestuplenij. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Yurist``, 2001. S. 59.
5.Kudryavcev V.N. Teoreticheskie osnovy` kvalifikacii prestuplenij. M.: Gosyurizdat, 1963. S. 88.
6.Lyapunov Yu.I. Obshhestvennaya opasnost` deyaniya kak universal`naya kategoriya sovetskogo ugolovnogo prava. M., 1989. S. 38.
7.Nashicz A. Pravotvorchestvo. Teoriya i zakonoda-tel`naya texnika. M., 1974. S. 222.
8.Trajnin A.N. Izbranny`e trudy` / sost., vstup. st. N.F. Kuzneczovoj. SPb.: Yurid. centr Press, 2004. S. 30.
9.Shargorodskij M.D. Ob obshhestvennoj opasnosti prestupnogo deyaniya // Pravovedenie. 1960. № 4. S. 153.
10.Ivanchin A.V. Teoreticheskaya model` predpisanij Ugolovnogo kodeksa RF ob osnovanii ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti i maloznachitel`nosti // Lex Russica. Zaochny`j krugly`j stol «Novy`j Ugolovny`j kodeks Rossii: konceptual`ny`e osnovy` i teoreticheskaya model`». 2015. № 6. T. SIII. S. 18.
11.Pozdeeva O.S. Nekotory`e problemy` kvalifikacii vzyatochnichestva // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2015. № 1. S. 101–106.
12.Rogova E.V. Maloznachitel`nost` deyaniya v zarubezhnom i rossijskom ugolovnom zakonodatel`stve // Nauchny`j vestnik Omskoj akademii MVD Rossii. 2012. № 4 (47). S. 44.
13.Borkov V.N. Poluchenie vzyatki: Voprosy` kvalifikacii: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Omsk, 2002. S. 8.
14.Serov V.V. E`nciklopedicheskij slovar` kry`laty`x slov i vy`razhenij. M.: Lokid-Press, 2005. S. 275.
15.Rossijskoe zakonodatel`stvo X–XX vekov / pod red. O.I. Chistyakova. M., 1988. T. 6. S. 310.
16.Ugolovny`j kodeks RSFSR // Sobranie uzakonenij. 1926. № 80. St. 600.
17.Ugolovny`j kodeks Ky`rgy`zskoj Respubliki / predisl. A.P. Stukanova. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2002. S. 45.
18.Ugolovny`j kodeks Respubliki Uzbekistan. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2001. S. 60.
19.Ugolovny`j kodeks Ukrainy` / nauch. red. prof. Taciya. SPb.: Yuridicheskij centr Press, 2001. S. 21.
20.Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Obshhaya chast`: uchebnik / pod red. F.R. Sundurova, I.A. Tarxanova. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Statut, 2009. S. 143.
21.Kruglikov L.L. Praktikum po ugolovnomu pravu. Obshhaya chast`. Osobennaya chast`: ucheb. posob. M., 2002. S. 16.
22.Opredelenie Vy`sshego Arbitrazhnogo Suda Rossijskoj Federacii ot 14.05.2007 № 5275/07 po delu № A-40-3361/06-85-249 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http//www.resheniya–sudov.ru/2007/18751.
23.Kurs ugolovnogo prava. Obshhaya chast`. T 1. Uchenie o prestuplenii / pod red. N.F. Kuzneczovoj, I.M. Tyazhkovoj. M.: Zerczalo, 1999. S. 180.
24.Kurs sovetskogo ugolovnogo prava. Chast` Obshhaya. T. 1. L.: Izd-vo LGU, 1968. S. 258.
25.Ugolovnoe pravo Rossii. Obshhaya chast` / pod red. N.M. Kropacheva, B.V. Volzhenkina, V.V. Orexova. SPb.: Izd. dom SPbGU, 2006. S. 368.
26.Opredelenie Sudebnoj kollegii po ugolovny`m delam Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 30.01.2006 № 20-d05-15. C. 3. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
27.Opredelenie SK Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 13 aprelya 1999 g. // BVS RF. 2000. № 9. S. 21.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Sabirzyanova A.A.
Practical problems of seizure of property in criminal proceedings
Purpose: Research of practical problems of seizure of property in criminal proceedings from the point of view of the balance of interests pursued by criminal proceedings and bankruptcy procedures.
Methodology: There was used comparative analysis, statistical and legal methods.
Results: The article examines the relationship between the rights and legitimate interests of victims and persons who are not involved in the criminal process, but are legally entitled to receive satisfaction of their claims at the expense of funds that may be received from the sale of property arrested in the framework of a criminal case.
Novelty/originality/value: The article is of high scientific value, since it examines the problems of protecting the rights of persons recognized as victims in a criminal case, on an equal basis with persons who are not participants in criminal proceedings and are deprived of the right to protect property rights as a result of the imposition of procedural coercion measures.
Keywords: criminal proceedings, interim measures, seizure of property, release of arrest, bankruptcy, bankruptcy commissioner.
References (transliterated)
1.Antonov I.O., Verin A.Yu., Klyukova M.E., Shagieva R.V. Transformaciya instituta priostanovleniya proizvodstva po ugolovnomu delu v stadii predvaritel`nogo rassledovaniya // Ucheny`e trudy` Rossijskoj akademii advokatury` i notariata. 2018. № 4 (51). S. 113–116.
2.Rossijskoe zakonodatel`stvo X–XX vekov. T. 4. M., 1991. S. 408–425, 432, 451–456.
3.Po danny`m Sudebnogo departamenta pri Verxovnom Sude Rossijskoj Federacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.cdep.ru/index.php?id=79&item=5258.
4.Postanovlenie Evropejskogo suda po pravam cheloveka ot 14.01.2010 № 54522/00 po delu Krotov protiv Rossii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://europeancourt.ru/uploads/ECHR_Kotov_v_Russia_14_01_2010.pdf.
5.Opredelenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 15.05.2012 № 813-O «Ob otkaze v prinyatii k rassmotreniyu zhaloby` grazhdanina Sady`kova Il`gizara Yaxievicha na narushenie ego konstitucionny`x prav polozheniyami abzacza devyatogo punkta 1 stat`i 126 Federal`nogo zakona «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)», abzacza shestogo punkta 1 stat`i 16, punkta 3 stat`i 28 Federal`nogo zakona «O gosudarstvennoj registracii prav na nedvizhimoe imushhestvo i sdelok s nim», chastej tret`ej i devyatoj stat`i 115 i punkta 2 chasti pervoj stat`i 208 Ugolovno-processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii».
6.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Moskovskogo okruga ot 20.11.2019 po delu № A40-13318/2019.
7.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Vostochno-Sibirskogo okruga ot 22.05.2020 po delu № A33-17085/2017.
8.Opredelenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Povolzhskogo okruga ot 06.02.2018 po delu № A57-12126/2017.
9.Abramov S.I. K voprosu o prioritete special`ny`x norm zakonodatel`stva o bankrotstve v regulirovanii sootvetstvuyushhix pravootnoshenij // Vestnik arbitrazhnoj praktiki. 2018. № 1. S. 59–66.
10.Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 31.01.2011 № 1-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti polozhenij chastej pervoj, tret`ej i devyatoj stat`i 115, punkta 2 chasti pervoj stat`i 208 Ugolovno-processual`nogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii i abzacza devyatogo punkta 1 stat`i 126 Federal`nogo zakona «O nesostoyatel`nosti (bankrotstve)» v svyazi s zhalobami zakry`togo akcionernogo obshhestva «Nedvizhimost`-M», obshhestva s ogranichennoj otvetstvennost`yu «Solomatinskoe xlebopriemnoe predpriyatie» i grazhdanki L.I. Kostarevoj».
11.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Severo-Kavkazskogo okruga ot 15 avgusta 2018 goda po delu № A63-23041/2017.
12.Opredelenie Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 15.02.2019 № 304-E`S18-4037(4).
13.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Ural`skogo okruga ot 23.12.2019 po delu № A50-4189/2019.
14.Postanovlenie Pervogo arbitrazhnogo apellyacionnogo suda ot 13.12.2018 po delu № A38-4153/2018.
15.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Ural`skogo okruga ot 15.12.2014 po delu № A50-1004/2014.
16.Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo Suda Ural`skogo okruga ot 10.12.2019 po delu № A50-2223/2019.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Aboyan A.A
Problems of implementation of the mediation procedure in the criminal process of the Russian Federation
Purpose: Analysis of the problems of using alternative dispute resolution methods such as mediation in Russian criminal proceedings, as well as the place of mediation in the criminal procedure system of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: Used in the article comparative-legal and formal-logical methods of research.
Results: The article substantiates the inexpediency and impossibility of introducing mediation procedures in the criminal proceedings of the Russian Federation at this stage of development. A comparative legal analysis of the Institute of mediation with the institutions of exemption from criminal liability established in the criminal code of the Russian Federation is carried out. A critical analysis of the data is given.
Novelty/originality/value: The possibility of introducing such an alternative method of conducting criminal proceedings as mediation is widely discussed in the scientific literature: there are both supporters and opponents of the new institution. In February 2020, the presidential Council for the development of civil society and human rights discussed the submission of a draft law that expands the possibilities of mediation in criminal proceedings, in light of which the relevance of the study increases.
Keywords: criminal law, criminal procedure, criminal matter, the procedure of reconciliation of the parties, the mediation process.
References (transliterated)
1.Arutyunyan A.A. Mediaciya v ugolovnom processe. M.: Infotropik Media, 2013. S. 15.
2.Gus`kova A.P., Matkina D.V. Mediaciya v ugolovnom processe // Rossijskij sud`ya. 2009. № 2. S. 34.
3.Dubrovin V.V. Mediaciya v ugolovnom sudoproizvodstve Rossii // Problemy` i perspektivy` yurisprudencii v sovremenny`x usloviyax. M., 2017. S. 118.
4.Zudov Yu.V. Mediaciya po ugolovny`m delam i perspektivy` ee razvitiya v Rossii // Monitoring pravoprimeneniya. 2016. № 4 (21). S. 52.
5.Lopashenko D.V. Sootnoshenie chastnogo i publichnogo v ugolovnom prave: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2018. S. 181.
6.Red`ko R.A. Mediaciya v ugolovnom processe // Teoreticheskie aspekty` yurisprudencii i voprosy` pravoprimeneniya. M., 2019. S. 226.
7.Savchenko A.N., Ureneva O.V. Mediaciya v ugolovnom processe // Vestnik Chelyabinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Pravo. 2015. № 25 (380). S. 175.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Arzumanian D.A.
Interaction between advocate and notaries in the implementation of human rights activities in relation to persons in custody, as well as persons serving a sentence in a detention center
Purpose: Proposing solutions to the law enforcement problem of providing qualified legal assistance by lawyers and notaries to persons in custody (as well as persons serving a sentence in a pre-trial detention facility).
Methodology: Comparative-legal and formal-legal methods were used.
Results: The lawyer acting as a party and guarantor of the protection of rights and freedoms of his principal must perform his duties reasonably and in good faith. One of the mechanisms of human rights activities in relation to the fixation and fixation of legally significant circumstances is the application to a notary for a notarial action. In view of numerous law enforcement problems connected with the organization of notary’s visit to the person who is in custody and the person serving his sentence in the detention center, the author suggests the possibility of «primary» establishment of will of the person and legally significant circumstances by the notary. to simplify the procedure of qualified legal assistance by notary, implementing one-time visit with a ready document which will be signed only after a full and comprehensive check of the will. This procedure will simplify the procedure of rendering qualified legal assistance by a notary, carrying out a single visit with a ready-made document, signing of which will be possible only after a full and comprehensive verification of the will and circumstances of the case of the applicant.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a high scientific value, since for the first time in Russian jurisprudence the connection between notary and lawyer has been substantiated and revealed in the framework of the implementation of human rights activities in relation to persons in custody, as well as persons serving sentences in a pre-trial detention center.
Keywords: Bar, notary public, human rights activities, person in custody, person serving a sentence in a detention center.
References (transliterated)
1.Aleksandrov A.S., Aleksandrova I.A. Osoby`j poryadok privlecheniya k ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti za prestupleniya v sfere predprinimatel`skoj i inoj e`konomicheskoj deyatel`nosti i osvobozhdeniya ot takovoj // Ugolovny`j process. 2017. № 6.
2.Vershinin A.P. Sposoby` zashhity` grazhdanskix prav v sude. SPb.: Izd-vo Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta, 1997. S. 111–123.
3.Galushkin A.A., Grudcyna L.Yu. Sovremenny`e problemy` i tendencii advokatury`. M.: RUDN, 2015.
4.Demina N. V. Formirovanie i razvitie notariata v kontekste e`volyucii gosudarstvennosti Rossii: istoriko-pravovoj aspekt: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. SPb., 2010.
5.Polozhenie o soglashenii ob okazanii yuridicheskoj pomoshhi // Advokatskaya palata Chelyabinskoj oblasti. 2015 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.advokat74.com/documents/90/1119.html.
6.Ragulin A.V. Professional`ny`e prava advokata-zashhitnika v Rossii: istoriya razvitiya i sovremennoe sostoyanie: monografiya. 2-e izd., stereotip. M.: FLINTA, 2016.
7.Repin V.S. Nastol`naya kniga notariusa (teoriya i praktika). M.: Yurid. lit., 1994.
8.Rudich V.V. Sudebny`e pozicii po voprosu zaklyucheniya pod strazhu licz, sovershivshix prestupleniya v sfere predprinimatel`skoj deyatel`nosti // Nauchny`ĭ vestnik Omskoĭ akademii MVD Rossii. Omsk, 2015.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
Sultanov A.R.
A claim for recognizing the absence of debt – establishing a negative fact?
Purpose: Study of such a method of protection as recognition of the debt as absent, from the substantive legal and procedural points of view.
Methodology: Historical and legal and formal legal methods were used.
Results: The article analyzes the pre-revolutionary works and the works of Soviet and Russian proceduralists who allowed the use of this method of protection. Such a claim is a claim for recognition and the enforceability of a judgment on a claim for recognition does not require enforcement action, but binds the parties to the dispute. The filing of such a claim is aimed at establishing a negative fact. The burden of proof in this claim lies with the defendant. The article analyzes the law enforcement practice and shows the existing problems in the application of this method of protection. Based on this analysis, the effectiveness of this method of protection is proved.
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a high scientific and practical value, since this method of protection has not been subjected to special research. However, this method is sometimes the only effective remedy.
Keywords: а claim for recognition, proof of a negative fact, an effective method of protection, bankruptcy.
References (transliterated)
1.Sultanov A.R. Mozhno li pred``yavit` v sude trebovanie o priznanii nezakonny`mi dejstvij kommercheskix organizacij // Arbitrazhnaya praktika. 2010. № 12. S. 44–49.
2.Gordon V.M. Iski o priznanii. Yaroslavl`, 1906. S. XIII.
3.By`chkov A.I. Aktual`ny`e problemy` sudebnogo razbiratel`stva. M., 2016.
4.Grazhdanskoe pravo: v 2 t.: uchebnik. T. 2. 3-e izd., pererab. i dop. / pod red. B.M. Gongalo. M., 2018.
5.Sinicyn S.A. Iskovaya zashhita veshhny`x prav v rossijskom i zarubezhnom grazhdanskom prave: aktual`ny`e problemy`. M., 2015.
6.Vikut M.A., Zajcev I.M. Grazhdanskij process. Saratov, 1998. S. 179.
7.Tyutryumov I.M. Ustav grazhdanskogo sudoproizvodstva s zakonodatel`ny`mi motivami, raz``yasneniyami Pravitel`stvuyushhego Senata i kommentariyami russkix yuristov. SPb., 1912. S. 1744.
8.Gurvich M.A. Uchenie ob iske (sostav, vidy`). M., 1981. S. 13.
9.Gurvich M.A. Presekatel`ny`e sroki v sovetskom grazhdanskom prave. M., 1961. S. 66.
10.Isk v grazhdanskom sudoproizvodstve: sb. / O.V. Isa-enkova, A.A. Demichev, T.V. Solov`eva, N.N. Tkacheva; pod red. O.V. Isaenkovoj. (Avtor glavy` 2 «Iski o priznanii, iski o prisuzhdenii, preobrazovatel`ny`e iski», glavy` 3 «Vidy` iskov» – A.A. Demichev). M., 2009. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
11.Bevzenko R.S. Gosudarstvennaya registraciya prav na nedvizhimoe imushhestvo: problemy` i puti resheniya // Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava. 2011. № 5. S. 4–30; № 6. S. 5–29; 2012. № 1. S. 4–34.
12.Braginskij M.I., Vitryanskij V.V. Dogovornoe pravo: Obshhie polozheniya. M., 1998. S. 153.
13.Sultanov A.R. Isk o priznanii otsutstviya zadolzhennosti kak sposob zashhity` // Transformaciya i cifrovizaciya pravovogo regulirovaniya obshhestvenny`x otnoshenij v sovremenny`x realiyax i usloviyax pandemii: kollektivnaya monografiya / pod red. I.V. Voronczovoj. Kazan`, 2020. S. 225–229.
14.Sultanov A.R. Komu mozhno zayavit` vstrechny`j isk ili tolkovanie, ogranichivayushhie sredstva zashhity` //Vestnik grazhdanskogo processa. 2017. № 6. S. 225–246.
15.Sultanov A.R. Nedopustimost` podachi neskol`kix vstrechny`x iskov – idol teatra? // Vestnik grazhdanskogo processa. 2015. № 2. S. 104–126.
16.Sultanov A.R. Podacha vtorogo vstrechnogo iska s tochki zreniya nauchnoj doktriny` i APK RF // Vestnik e`konomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossijskoj Federacii. 2015. № 6. S. 116–125.
17.Sultanov A.R. Vstrechny`j isk pri rassmotrenii sporov, vy`tekayushhix iz publichny`x pravootnoshenij // Vestnik grazhdanskogo processa. 2016. № 3. S. 130–141.
18.Vas`kovskij E.V. Uchebnik grazhdanskogo processa. M., 2003. S. 154.
19.Sultanov A.R. Problema sudebny`x aktov, vy`nesen-ny`x s narusheniem podsudnosti i podvedomstvennosti // Vestnik FAS Severo-Kavkazskogo okruga. 2010. № 1. S. 140–153.
20.Postanovlenie AS Ural`skogo okruga ot 24.09.2018 po delu A50-17959/2016.
21.Sultanov A.R. Manipulyacii s podsudnost`yu // Zakon. 2008. № 9. S. 103–119.
22.Gordon V.M. Iski o priznanii. Yaroslavl`, 1906. S. 45.
23.Postanovlenie AS Ural`skogo okruga ot 11.07.2019 A60-28990/2018.
 
PROTECTION OF THE PROFESSIONAL RIGHTS OF ADVOCATE
Olenev A.B.
The right of a defense lawyer to use technical means in the course of actions carried out in the framework of professional activities
Purpose: To study the issues of regulating the use of technical means by a defense lawyer in the framework of their professional activities.
Methodology: The formal legal method and the method of participant observation were used.
Results: It was concluded that in order to ensure the right of a defense lawyer to use technical means, an addition and part 3 of Art. 6 of the Federal Law «On advocacy and the advocacy profession in the Russian Federation» with a direct indication that a lawyer has the right «to use technical means when carrying out advocacy».
Novelty/originality/value: The article has a certain scientific value, since it is a modern attempt to consider an issue important for advocacy.
Keywords: advocate, defense lawyer, lawyer’s rights.
References (transliterated)
1.https://advstreet.ru.
2.https://civil-forum.ru/anons/30-maya-kruglyy-stol-obespechenie-neobkhodimykh-garantiy-advokatskoy-deyatelnosti.html?sphrase_id=7950.
3.https://civil-forum.ru/forums/2017/news/programma_ogf_2017_kruglyy_stol_advokatura_kak_institut_zashchity_prav_cheloveka.html?sphrase_id=7950.
4.https://civil-forum.ru/forums/2018/discuss/razvitie-advokatury-/.
5.https://civil-forum.ru/news/advokaty-vadim-klyuvgant-i-andrey-ragulin-o-zakonoproekte-ob-ukreplenii-garantiy-nezavisimosti-advok.html?sphrase_id=7950.
6.https://civil-forum.ru/news/eksperty-razrabatyvayut-izmeneniya-v-zakonodatelstvo-rasshiryayushchie-prava-advokatov.html?sphrase_id=7950.
7.https://civil-forum.ru/news/minyust-rf-podderzhivaet-predlozheniya-ekspertov-gruppy-razvitie-advokatury.html?sphrase_id=7950.
8.https://civil-forum.ru/news/predstaviteli-minyusta-i-verkhovnogo-suda-podderzhali-initsiativy-advokatskogo-soobshchestva.html?sphrase_id=7950.
9.https://legal.report/minjust-predlozhil-popravki-v-uk-i-upk-dajushhie-advokatam-besprecedentnye-prava-i-garantii/.
10.https://minjust.gov.ru/ru/events/48076/.
11.Arxiv Saratovskogo oblastnogo suda, delo № 3a-1029/2020.
12.https://pravo.ru/news/225326/.
13.Advokat oshtrafovan za fotos``yomku narushenij oxrany` suda [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://advstreet.ru/news/advokat-oshtrafovan-za-fotosyemku-narusheniy-okhrany-suda/.
14.Advokata obvinili v ispol`zovanii diktofona vozle bol`nicy FSIN [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://advstreet.ru/news/advokata-obvinili-v-ispolzovanii-diktofona-vozle-bolnitsy-fsin/.
15.Apellyaciya ne uvidela narusheniya v zaprete advokatu ispol`zovat` diktofon [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://advstreet.ru/news/apellyatsiya-ne-uvidela-narusheniya-v-zaprete-advokatu-ispolzovat-diktofon/.
16.Bardin L. Pravo na audiozapis` // Advokatskaya gazeta. 2010. № 17.
17.O svobodnom dostupe advokata v sledstvenny`e organy` s texnicheskimi sredstvami [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://fparf.ru/news/fpa/o-svobodnom-dostupe-advokata-v-sledstvennye-organy-s-tekhnicheskimi-sredstvami-/.
18.Ragulin A.V. Pravo advokata-zashhitnika na ispol`zovanie texnicheskix sredstv: problemny`e voprosy` realizacii i puti ix resheniya // Ucheny`e trudy` rossijskoj akademii advokatury` i notariata. 2012. № 2 (25). S. 8–12.
19.Rekomendacii o prinyatii mer po preduprezhdeniyu narushenij professional`ny`x prav advokatov v usloviyax dejstviya osoby`x pravovy`x rezhimov, ustanovlenny`x v svyazi s rasprostraneniem novoj koronavirusnoj infekcii (2019-nCoV) // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2020. № 2 (45). S. 63–79.

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Proskurina D.S., Khokhlova M.I., Safin N.I.
Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems: The Future of the Military Industry or the Threat of the Fall of International Humanitarian Law?
Purpose: To examine the relevance of international humanitarian law in the context of the challenges that arise in the creation of deadly automated systems (SAS). Investigation of approaches to understanding ASC and possible problems arising in the essential, ethical and regulatory aspects of research.
Methodology: Comparative legal, formal legal methods, as well as analysis and synthesis were used in the research process.
Results: On the basis of the conducted research, the authors came to the conclusion that experimenting with the capabilities of the third generation CAS in order to potentially regulate them is a risky and little thought-out step. The authors believe that the most relevant solution would be to settle the SAS by a direct, complete and mandatory ban, similar to what currently exists with regard to the production and use of chemical weapons.
Novelty/originality/value: At the moment, military technologies are developing rapidly, all over the world, legal scholars ask more and more questions about the legal regulation of artificial intelligence and do not find answers to them. The potential legal regulation of such systems in relation to military operations, where any mistake of the «thinking» machine can cost human life, needs to be given as much attention as possible.
Keywords: lethal autonomous systems, international humanitarian law, artificial intelligence, killer robots, military action, responsibility.
References (transliterated)
1.Kozyulin V.B., Efimov A.R. Novy`j Bond – mashina s licenziej na ubijstvo // Indeks bezopasnosti. 2016. № 1. S. 37–60.
2.Do killer robots exist? [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.paxforpeace.nl/media/files/pax-booklet-killer-robots-what-are-they-and-what-are-the-concerns.pdf.
3.Avtonomny`e sistemy` vooruzhenij: ser`ezny`e posledstviya dlya budushhego vojny` // Sajt MKKK. 2016. 6 maya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.icrc.org/ru/document/avtonomnye-sistemyvooruzheniy-cereznye-posledstviya-dlya-budushchego-voyny.
4.Report of the Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, A/HRC/23/47 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/RegularSession/Session23/A-HRC-23-47_en.pdf.
5.Povoloczkij G. Avtonomny`e boevy`e roboty` – budet li novaya gonka vooruzhenij? // Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn`. 2015. 19 avgusta [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://interaffairs.ru/news/show/13621.
6.Konsul`tativnoe zaklyuchenie Mezhdunarodnogo Suda OON ot 8 iyulya 1996 g. po voprosu o zakonnosti ugrozy` yaderny`m oruzhiem ili ego primeneniya // Kratkoe izlozhenie reshenij, konsul`tativny`x zaklyuchenij i postanovlenij Mezhdunarodnogo Suda. 1992–1996. N`yu-Jork, 1998 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.icj-cij.org/files/summaries/summaries-1992-1996-ru.pdf.
7.Iskusstvenny`j intellekt prevzoshel voenny`x pilotov. 29.06.2016 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://nplus1.ru/news/2016/06/29/Daisy-Bell.
8.Making the Case: The Dangers of Killer Robots and the Need for a Preemptive Ban // Human Rights Watch, International Human Rights Clinic. 2016. 9 Dec. [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.hrw.org/report/2016/12/09/making-case/dangers-killer-robots-and-need-preemptiveban.
9.Konvenciya o zapreshhenii razrabotki, proizvodstva, nakopleniya i primeneniya ximicheskogo oruzhiya i o ego unichtozhenii (prinyata 13 yanvarya 1993 g.).
10.Sy`chev V. Kto-to dolzhen voevat` // N+1 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://nplus1.ru/material/2018/09/05/war-robots-laws.
11.Petrova D.A., Gajvoronskaya Ya.V., Mamy`chev A.Yu. Smertonosny`e avtonomny`e sistemy`: e`ticheskie, yuridicheskie, politicheskie problemy` i perspektivy` ix resheniya // Territoriya novy`x vozmozhnostej. Vestnik Vladivostokskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta e`konomiki i servisa. 2019. T. 11. № 4. S. 33–41.
12.Skuratova A.Yu., Korol`kova E.E. Smertonosny`e avtonomny`e sistemy` vooruzhenij: problemy` mezhdunarodno-pravovogo regulirovaniya // Rossijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2019. № 1 (124). S. 22–30.
13.Makarenko S.I. Robototexnicheskie kompleksy` voennogo naznacheniya – sovremennoe sostoyanie i perspektivy` razvitiya // Sistemy` upravleniya, svyazi i bezopasnosti. 2016. № 2. S. 73–132.
14.Avtonomny`e sistemy` vooruzhenij: resheniya ob ubijstve ili unichtozhenii celej – otvetstvennost` lyudej // Sajt MKKK. 2016. 11 aprelya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.icrc.org/ru/document/avtonomnye-sistemy-vooruzheniy-resheniya-ob-ubiystve-iliunichtozhenii-celey-otvetstvennost.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Garmaev Y.P.
Anti-corruption compliance: criminalistic and operational search aspects
Purpose: Justification of the need for a meaningful, interdisciplinary filling of anti-corruption compliance programs in companies in the private sector of the economy.
Methodology: Analytical, formal legal, comparative legal methods and educational approach were used.
Results: It is proved that within the framework of the creation of an interdisciplinary concept of anti-corruption compliance in Russia, a component of this concept is the achievements of the sciences of forensic science and operational-search activity, including specially adapted knowledge from forensic characteristics and private methods of investigation of various corruption crimes, including those committed in commercial organizations.
Novelty/originality/value: For the first time, arguments are made in favor of the fact that anti-corruption compliance programs can be effectively implemented with the help of experienced lawyers specializing in defense and representation in criminal cases of official and corruption crimes, anti-criminal protection of business.
Keywords: anti-corruption compliance, criminalistic, operational-search activities, corruption risks, interdisciplinary approach, anti-corruption, defense lawyer, illegal criminal prosecution, defense from prosecution.
References (transliterated)
1.Advokatskoe byuro «Criminal Defense Firm» (ugolovnaya zashhita). g. Moskva [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.criminaldefense.ru/ru/.
2.Baev O.Ya. Osnovy` metodiki ugolovnogo presledovaniya i professional`noj zashhity` ot nego (na primere ugolovno-processual`nogo issledovaniya dolzhnostny`x i sluzhebny`x prestuplenij): nauch.-praktich. posob. M.: E`ksmo, 2009.
3.Bashmakov I.S. Osobennosti pervonachal`nogo e`tapa rassledovaniya korrupcionny`x prestuplenij, sovershaemy`x predstavitelyami organov mestnoj vlasti. M.: Yurlitinform, 2007.
4.Bejker Makenzi, 2019. Otchet o rezul`tatax issledovaniya praktiki primeneniya st. 19.28 KoAP RF [E`lektron-ny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.bakermckenzie.com/ru/insight/publications/2019/11/corporate-anti-corruption-enforcement.
5.Belkin R.S. Kriminalistika: Problemy` segodnyashnego dnya. Zlobodnevny`e voprosy` rossijskoj kriminalistiki. M., 2001.
6.Garmaev Yu.P. Osnovy` metodiki rassledovaniya korrupcionny`x prestuplenij [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.iuaj.net/node/2490.
7.Garmaev Yu.P., Gadzhiev V.E`. Teoreticheskie osnovy` formirovaniya operativno-rozy`sknoj xarakteristiki prestuplenij i ee razgranichenie so smezhny`mi nauchny`mi kategoriyami // Aktual`ny`e voprosy` teorii i praktiki operativno-rozy`sknoj deyatel`nosti: mat-ly` III Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konferencii (21.11.2014). Krasnodar: Krasnodarskij universitet MVD RF. 2015. S. 27–36.
8.Garmaev Yu.P., Ivanov E`.A., Markunczov S.A. Antikorrupcionny`j komplaens v Rossijskoj Federacii: mezhdisciplinarny`e aspekty`: monografiya. M.: ID Yurisprudenciya, 2020.
9.Gerasimov I.F. Obshhie polozheniya metodiki rassledovaniya prestuplenij: Kriminalistika: uchebnik dlya vuzov / pod red. I.F. Gerasimova, L.Ya. Drapkina. M., 1994.
10.Zhalinskij A.E`. Ugolovnoe pravo v ozhidanii peremen: teoretiko-instrumental`ny`j analiz. 2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Prospekt, 2009.
11.Zloupotreblenie polnomochiyami. St. 201 UK RF // Oficial`ny`j sajt specializirovannoj kollegii advokatov «E`kKorp-Zashhita», g. Moskva [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://prestuplenia.net/articles/authorities.html.
12.Ivanov E`.A. Antikorrupcionny`j komplaens-kontrol` v stranax BRIKS. M.: Yurisprudenciya, 2015.
13.Kassacionnoe opredelenie Rostovskogo oblastnogo suda po delu № 22-9035 ot 28.10.2010.
14.Kassacionnoe opredelenie Rostovskogo oblastnogo suda po delu № 22-6998 ot 19.09.2012.
15.Kovarin D.A. Operativno-rozy`sknoe protivodejstvie kory`stno-nasil`stvenny`m prestupleniyam, sovershaemy`m v sfere e`konomiki: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. SPb., 2005.
16.Koncepciya organizacii sistemy` vnutrennego kontrolya dlya nekreditny`x finansovy`x organizacij (utv. Bankom Rossii). 2017 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.cbr.ru/content/document/file/27671/inf_note_oct_3117.pdf.
17.Korobejnikov V.N. Operativno-rozy`sknoe obespechenie raskry`tiya i rassledovaniya prestuplenij, svyazanny`x s vy`mogatel`stvom: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Izhevsk, 2001.
18.Kriminalistika: uchebnik / pod red. E.P. Ishhenko. M.: Prospekt, 2014.
19.Mazunin Ya.M., Kudryaviczkij A.S. O sootnoshenii ponyatij kriminalisticheskoj i operativno-rozy`sknoj metodik // Operativnik (sy`shhik). 2010. № 3. S. 51–55.
20.Neklyudov V.G. Obshhie polozheniya preduprezhdeniya operativny`mi apparatami organov vnutrennix del massovy`x besporyadkov na pochve mezhnacional`ny`x konfliktov: avtoref. dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. M.: Izd-vo MVShM MVD Rossii, 1992.
21.Nikitin A.V. Operativno-rozy`sknoe protivodejstvie kory`stny`m i kory`stno-nasil`stvenny`m prestupleniyam protiv sobstvennosti: dis.  … kand. yurid. nauk. SPb., 2007.
22.Organizaciya i metodika rassledovaniya vzyatochnichestva: metod. posob. / E.A. Mironova, A.V. Brilliantov, N.A. Garazha, S.P. Kushnirenko i dr. M., 2001.
23.Pavlichenko N.V. Oxrana konfidencial`nogo sotrudnichestva: problemy` sistematizacii norm prava // Yuridicheskaya nauka i pravooxranitel`naya praktika. 2009. № 2 (8).
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25.Teoriya operativno-rozy`sknoj deyatel`nosti: uchebnik / pod red K.K. Goryainova, V.S. Ovchinskogo, G.K. Sinilova. M.: INFRA-M, 2010.
26.Xalikov A.N. Dolzhnostny`e prestupleniya: xarakteristika, rassledovanie, preduprezhdenie (kriminalisticheskij aspekt): monografiya. M.: Yurlitinform, 2012.
27.Yani P.S., Proxorov N.V. Antikorrupcionny`j komplaens v ugolovno-pravovoj sfere: soderzhatel`ny`j e`lement // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2018. № 9. S. 54–57.
28.Cruz J.M. Police Misconduct and Political Legitimacy in Central America // Journal of Latin American Studies. 2015. № 47(2), P. 251–283.
29.Stinson P.M.Sr., Liederbach J., Buerger M., Steven L. & Brewer Jr. To protect and collect: a nationwide study of profit-motivated police crime. Criminal Justice Studies // A Critical Journal of Crime, Law and Society. 2018. № 31 (3). P. 310–331.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Uryadov Yu.Yu.
International legal regulation of counteraction to the legalization of criminally obtained income
Purpose: Research of current international legal acts and identification of problematic issues in the organization of cooperation of the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation with the competent authorities of foreign states in the implementation of countering the legalization of proceeds from crime, identification of such proceeds and their subsequent confiscation.
Methodology: The systematic and legal research methods were used.
Results: The socio-legal pattern of the emergence of the need to resolve the issues of discrepancies in the legislation of various states on the issues of criminal and criminal procedure law, aimed at combating the legalization of proceeds from crime, is revealed.
Novelty/originality/value: The relevance and value of the issues investigated in the article is due to the importance of resolving regulatory collisions that make it difficult for the competent law enforcement agencies of various states to perform functions related to solving crimes of a transnational and (or) international nature, the establishment (detection), as well as the seizure and subsequent confiscation of funds and other property received from such illegal activities.
The article contains information about the author’s analysis of the established international relations, the novelty and relevance of which are of scientific and practical importance for the further improvement of international law.
Keywords: international cooperation, international treaties, conventions, directives, transnational crime, international crime, money laundering.
References (transliterated)
1.Informacionnoe soobshhenie «Money-Laundering and Globalization» («Otmy`vanie deneg i globalizaciya») // United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (Upravlenie OON po narkotikam i prestupnosti) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/money-laundering/globalization.html.
2.Rejting stran i territorij po razmeru valovogo vnutrennego produkta (The World Bank: Gross Domestic Product 2020): Informacionnoe soobshhenie // Gumanitarny`j portal [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://gtmarket.ru/ratings/rating-countries-gdp/rating-countries-gdp-info.
3.Konvenciya Organizacii Ob``edinenny`x Nacij o bor`be protiv nezakonnogo oborota narkoticheskix sredstv i psixotropny`x veshhestv (zaklyuchena v g. Vene 20.12.1988, ratificirovana postanovleniem Verxovnogo Soveta SSSR ot 9 oktyabrya 1990 g. № 1711-1) // Konsorcium kodeks. E`lektronny`j fond pravovoj i normativno-texnicheskoj dokumentacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1900535.
4.Konvenciya ob otmy`vanii, vy`yavlenii, iz``yatii i konfiskacii doxodov ot prestupnoj deyatel`nosti (ETS № 141) (zaklyuchena v g. Strasburge 08.11.1990, ratificirovana Federal`ny`m zakonom RF ot 28 maya 2001 g. № 62-FZ) // Konsorcium kodeks. E`lektronny`j fond pravovoj i normativno-texnicheskoj dokumentacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/1901938.
5.Konvenciya ob ugolovnoj otvetstvennosti za korrupciyu (ETS № 173) (zaklyuchena v g. Strasburge 27.01.1999, ratificirovana Federal`ny`m zakonom RF ot 25 iyulya 2006 g. № 125-FZ) // Konsorcium kodeks. E`lektronny`j fond pravovoj i normativno-texnicheskoj dokumentacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901788603.
6.Konvenciya protiv transnacional`noj organizovannoj prestupnosti (prinyata v g. N`yu-Jorke 15.11.2000 Rezolyuciej 55/25 na 62-m plenarnom zasedanii 55-j sessii General`noj Assamblei OON, ratificirovana Federal`ny`m zakonom RF ot 26 aprelya 2004 g. № 26-FZ) // Konsorcium kodeks. E`lektronny`j fond pravovoj i normativno-texnicheskoj dokumentacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL:http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901815431.
7.Konvenciya protiv transnacional`noj organizovannoj prestupnosti (prinyata v g.  N`yu-Jorke 31.10.2003 Rezolyuciej 58/4 na 58-j sessii General`noj Assamblei OON, ratificirovana Federal`ny`m zakonom RF ot 8 marta 2006 g. № 40-FZ) // Organizaciya Ob``edinenny`x Nacij [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/conventions/corruption.shtm.
8.Litvinenko A.N., Kovaleva E.Yu. Legalizaciya (otmy`vanie) doxodov, poluchenny`x prestupny`m putem: ucheb. posob. v sxemax. SPb.: Znanie, IVE`SE`P, 2004. S. 62.
9.Konvenciya Soveta Evropy` ob otmy`vanii, vy`yavlenii, iz``yatii, konfiskacii doxodov ot prestupnoj deyatel`nosti i finansirovaniya terrorizma (CETS № 198) (Zaklyuchena v g. Varshave 16.05.2005, ratificirovana Federal`ny`m zakonom RF ot 26 aprelya 2004 g. № 26-FZ) // Konsorcium kodeks. E`lektronny`j fond pravovoj i normativno-texnicheskoj dokumentacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901944951.
10.Informaciya ob itogax zasedaniya Soveta glav gosudarstv SNG (g. Dushanbe, 5 oktyabrya 2007 g.) // Ispolnitel`ny`j komitet Sodruzhestva Nezavisimy`x Gosudarstv [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://cis.minsk.by/page/show?id=10308.
11.Dogovor o protivodejstvii legalizacii (otmy`vaniyu) doxodov, poluchenny`x prestupny`m putem, i finansirovaniyu terrorizma pri peremeshhenii nalichny`x denezhny`x sredstv i (ili) denezhny`x instrumentov cherez tamozhennuyu graniczu Tamozhennogo soyuza (Podpisan v g. Moskve 19 dekabrya 2011 g.). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_123791.
12.https://investments.academic.ru/940/Evropejskij_soyuz.
13.https://dic.academic.ru/dic.nsf/bse/86465/Evropejskoe e`konomicheskoe soobshhestvo.
14.Direktiva EE`S «O predotvrashhenii ispol`zovaniya finansovoj sistemy` dlya celej otmy`vaniya deneg» (91/308/EE`S) ot 10 iyunya 1991 g. // Konsorcium kodeks. E`lektronny`j fond pravovoj i normativno-texnicheskoj dokumentacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901934981.
15.Direktiva 2001/97/ES Evropejskogo parlamenta i Soveta ot 4 dekabrya 2001 goda o vnesenii popravok v direktivu 91/308/EES Soveta o preduprezhdenii ispol`zovaniya finansovoj sistemy` v celyax otmy`vaniya denezhny`x sredstv // Mezhdunarodnaya set` informacii o bor`be s otmy`vaniem deneg / International Money Laundering Information Network [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.imolin.org/pdf/imolin/overviewr.pdf.
16.Direktiva Evropejskogo Parlamenta i Soveta Evropejskogo Soyuza 2015/849 ot 20 maya 2015 g. «O predotvrashhenii ispol`zovaniya finansovoj sistemy` dlya celej otmy`vaniya deneg ili finansirovaniya terrorizma, ob izmenenii Reglamenta (ES) 648/2012 Evropejskogo Parlamenta i Soveta ES i ob otmene Direktivy` 2005/60/EC Evropejskogo Parlamenta i Soveta ES i Direktivy` 2006/70/EC Evropejskoj Komissii» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evropejskij_soyuz.
17.Gruppa razrabotki finansovy`x mer bor`by` s otmy`vaniem deneg [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://eurasiangroup.org/ru.
18.Rekomendacii FATF. Mezhdunarodny`e standarty` po protivodejstviyu otmy`vaniyu deneg, finansirovaniyu terrorizma i finansirovaniyu rasprostraneniya oruzhiya massovogo unichtozheniya: per. s angl. M.: Veche, 2012. S. 176.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Abdullin R.R.
On the problems and prospects of development of non-state forensic organizations in Russia
Purpose: To study the features of the activities of non-governmental forensic organizations in the Russian Federation and show the ways of their further development.
Methodology: The research uses methods of system-structural, comparative-legal and statistical analysis, formal-logical, General scientific and private scientific methods of scientific knowledge.
Results: The research topic is relevant because the problems of the level of forensic activity of non-governmental forensic organizations have become more acute in the context of the ongoing improvement of judicial proceedings in the Russian Federation. Based on the review of various scientific approaches of scientists and the practice of conducting forensic examinations conducted by non-state forensic organizations, the need for a number of measures to improve the level of organizational, scientific and methodological support for expert research conducted by non-state forensic organizations is proved.
Issues related to the introduction of the latest expert technologies, accreditation of forensic organizations (laboratories) in accordance with the international standard ISO/IEC 17025, and the development and approval of interstate standards for forensic expertise were considered.
The results of the study can be used in the activities of forensic organizations, in the course of training and advanced training courses for forensic experts.
Recommendations on the integration of the methodological foundations of expert research in the course of international cooperation of forensic organizations will improve forensic activities, which, ultimately, will lead to an increase in the quality of forensic examinations and legal proceedings in general.
Novelty/originality/value: The аrticle has a high scientific value, since it is one of the first attempts to consider the problems of certain areas of activity of non-governmental forensic organizations and suggest ways to solve them.
Keywords: forensic activity, expert, non-governmental forensic organizations, standardization, methods, expertise.
References (transliterated)
1.Aminev F.G. O problemax proizvodstva novy`x vidov i rodov sudebny`x e`kspertiz negosudarstvenny`mi sudebno-e`kspertny`mi organizaciyami // Aktual`ny`e problemy` prava i gosudarstva v XXI veke. Ufa: UYuI MVD Rossii, 2019. T. 11. № 1. S. 40–46.
2.Aminev F.G., Kuchin O.S. O neobxodimosti pravovoj reglamentacii ediny`x metodik e`kspertnoj deyatel`nosti // E`kspert-kriminalist. 2020. № 4. S. 3–6.
3.Aminev F.G. O problemax sudebno-e`kspertnoj deya-tel`nosti v Rossijskoj Federacii i putyax ix resheniya // Probely` v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve. 2017. № 3. S. 390–393.
4.Voronin S.A. Issledovanie i kriterii ocenki zaklyucheniya e`ksperta sudom // Vestnik Evrazijskoj akademii administrativny`x nauk. 2017. № 3(40). S. 40–46.
5.Aminev F.G. O nekotory`x voprosax sovershenstvovaniya professional`noj podgotovki i perepodgotovki e`kspertny`x kadrov // Teoriya i praktika sudebnoj e`kspertizy` v sovremenny`x usloviyax: materialy` VII Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, Moskva, MGYuU, 17–18 yanvarya 2019 g. M.: RG-Press, 2019. S. 41–47.
6.Parfenova M.V., Yanchurkin O.V. Reformirovanie sudebno-e`kspertnoj deyatel`nosti v celyax obespecheniya prav i svobod uchastnikov ugolovnogo sudoproizvodstva // Teoriya i praktika sudebnoj e`kspertizy` v sovremenny`x usloviyax: materialy` V Mezhdunarodnoj nauch.-prakt. konferencii. Moskva, 22–23 yanvarya 2015 g. M., 2015. S. 367.
7.Aminev F.G. O nekotory`x problemax sudebno-e`kspertnoj deyatel`nosti v Rossijskoj Federacii // Rossijskij sud`ya. 2016. № 6. S. 12–16.
8.Ragulin A.V. Traktat ob Obrashhenii 32-x, principax, diskriminacii i demokratii v rossijskoj advokature: monografii. M.: Rossijskaya akademiya advokatury` i notariata, Evrazijskij nauchno-issledovatel`skij institut problem prava, 2019.
9.Aminev F.G., Xomutov S.V. O pravovom obespechenii professional`noj podgotovki e`kspertov negosudarstvenny`x sudebno-e`kspertny`x organizacij // Vestnik kriminalistiki. 2019. № 2 (70). S. 38–48.
10.Aminev F.G. Osobennosti nauchno-metodicheskogo i informacionnogo obespecheniya sudebno-e`kspertnoj deya-tel`nosti // Vestnik kriminalistiki. 2020. № 2 (74). S. 37–45.
11.Aminev F.G., Aminev A.F. O nauchno-metodicheskom obespechenii psixofiziologicheskoj e`kspertizy` s primeneniem poligrafa // Problemy` e`konomiki i yuridicheskoj praktiki. 2020. T. XVI. № 1. S. 175–178.
12.http://www.cdep.ru/index.php?id=79.
 
JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
Mazhinsky R.A.
Repetition as an administrative and pre-judicial sign for establishing criminal liability for driving a vehicle by a minor driver who does not have the right to drive
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to identify the need to establish criminal liability for driving a vehicle underage driver, without the right to drive a vehicle, re-committed the administrative offense under part 1 of article 12.7 KoAP of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: Using formal-legal and comparative-legal research methods, the author analyzes the judicial practice in this area at the moment, and also determines the reasons for the frequent repetition of the Commission of an administrative offense by minors under part 1 of article 12.7 of the administrative Code of the Russian Federation.
Results: As a result of the conducted research, the author makes the assumption that such a frequent repetition of the analyzed administrative offense committed by adolescents is due to the fact that the lack of legal regulation leaves the minor virtually out of the field of administrative, and even more so, criminal responsibility. Due to the criminal connivance of parents (legal representatives) and the imperfection of the law, teenagers feel impunity and commit administrative offenses that provide for administrative responsibility under part 1 of article 12.7 of the administrative Code of the Russian Federation repeatedly, thereby threatening the rule of law in the field of traffic, as well as the life, health, property of other road users.
Novelty/originality/value: The author makes a proposal on the need to provide in criminal law that the repetition of committing an administrative offense under part 1 of article 12.7 administrative code is the administrative-prejudicial basis for the characterization of an act as a crime and in case of repetition (within 1 year from the moment of bringing to administrative responsibility) is to attract a minor driver of the vehicle, not having the right of management to criminal liability, for what to add article 264.1 the criminal code part 2. And, in the absence of the teenager’s own source of income to replace the administrative fine or penalty as a criminal punishment, punishment in the form of obligatory or corrective works, appointed by the minor based on age and the rules of the labour code concerning the regulation of work by minors, given the state of the health of minors.
Keywords: traffic police; administrative offense; protocol; administrative responsibility; criminal liability; repetition; administrative prejudice; correctional work, mandatory work; vehicle registration.
References (transliterated)
1.Lenta novostej TVK po Krasnoyarskomu krayu [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://tvk6.ru/publications/news/55046/.
2.Soobshhenie press-sluzhby` GU MVD po Krasnoyarskomu krayu [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://24.mvd.rf/news/item/19797472.
3.Reshenie Tatarskogo rajonnogo suda Novosibirskoj oblasti № 12-47/2016 ot 21 iyulya 2016 g. po delu № 12-47/2016 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://sudact.ru/regular/doc/.
 
ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
Bulakh D.B.
About the judicial precedent as a source of Russian law
Purpose: The purpose of this work is a generalized classification of a judicial precedent with a clear definition of criteria for the classification and types of such precedent. Based on this goal, the following research objectives are set:
– to reveal the concept of judicial precedent as a source of law;
– to investigate the genesis and current state of the judicial precedent in domestic legal proceedings;
– to identify the features of the implementation of the judicial precedent in the legal system of the Russian Federation.
Methodology: The methodological basis of this research is a complex of general methods of scientific knowledge, as well as special methods that are used in jurisprudence.
Results: During the course of the judicial reforms in the Russian Federation, it became clear that the internal restructuring of the judicial branch of power is not enough to solve the problems of legal proceedings, caused to a large extent by the imperfection of the norms of substantive and procedural law.
Improving the quality of judicial protection of the rights, freedoms and legal interests of a person is an issue that provides for an integrated approach to the solution. One of the components of the problem of the unity of judicial practice, the predictability of the law as an element of its quality.
Together with the main source of law - a normative legal act - legal norms are formed by law enforcement officials from other sources, which are called additional, non-traditional or authorized sources in the doctrine. The modern school of law classifies such sources as judicial precedents. The actual use of additional sources in law enforcement practice allowed some authors not only to talk about their presence, but also to begin their scientific analysis.
Novelty/originality/value: Considering all of the above, we believe that in order to create and establish progressive trends in the legislation of the Russian Federation, the problem of determining a judicial precedent in the domestic legal system is becoming increasingly important and requires comprehensive study and analysis.
Therefore, in our opinion, it is not impossible for the domestic legal system to apply judicial precedent as a source of law, and the study of this problem is relevant for domestic legal science.
Keywords: judicial precedent, sources of law, legal family, precedent, doctrine of law, judicial practice, law of application.
References (transliterated)
1.Bogdanovskaya I.Yu. Sudebny`j precedent – istochnik prava? // Gosudarstvo i pravo. 2019. № 12. S. 5–10.
2.Guk P.A. Sudebny`j precedent kak istochnik prava / pod nauch. red. N.I. Matuzova. Penza, 2018. S. 35.
3.Donika D.D. O vozmozhnosti ispol`zovaniya pravovogo precedenta v kachestve istochnika prava v rossijskoj pravovoj sisteme // Uspexi sovremennogo estestvoznaniya. 2017. № 8.
4.Kachanovskij Yu.V. Sudebny`j precedent kak istochnik prava // Pravovaya politika i pravovaya zhizn`. 2014. № 1 (14). S. 148–155.
5.Marchenko M.N. Istochniki prava: ucheb. posob. M.: TK «Velbi»: Prospekt, 2015. S. 622–632.
6.Pervuxina L. F. Znachenie sudebnogo precedenta v praktike federal`ny`x sudov v Rossijskoj Federacii // Aktual`ny`e problemy` bor`by` s prestupnost`yu v Sibirskom regione. Krasnoyarsk, 2015. Ch. 2. S. 20–26.
7.Ponomareva K.A. Sudebny`j precedent kak istochnik nalogovogo prava // Pravoprimenenie. 2018. № 2(2). S. 20–24.
8.Yarkov V.V. Status sudebnoj praktiki v Rossii: nekotory`e voprosy` // Yurid. nauka i obrazovanie / Mosk. gos. un-t im. M.V. Lomonosova; Belorus. gos. un-t; Mosk. gos. yurid. akad. i dr. M., 2018. Vy`p. 1. S. 200–216.
9.Pelc K. The Politics of Precedent in International Law: A Social Network Application // American Political Science Review. 2014. Vol. 108. № 3.
10.Steinberg R. Judicial Lawmaking at the WTO: Discursive, Constitutional, and Political Constraints // The American Journal of International Law. 2004. Vol. 98. № 2.

Index

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The journal is included in the Highest attestation commitee`s of the ministry of education and science of Russian Federation list of the reviewed scientific journals in which the main scientific results of theses on competition of an academic degree of the candidate of science, on competition of an academic degree of the doctor of science have to be published (on the group of specialities 12.00.00 - Law Sciences)