NEWS
Интервью с членом Совета Федеральной палаты адвокатов Российской Федерации, Президентом Адвокатской палаты Республики Башкортостан Б.Г. Юмадиловым.: Интервью с Председателем Президиума Саратовской специализированной коллегии адвокатов, заслуженным юристом Российской Федерации, кандидатом юридических наук, профессором Н.П. Царевой: Интервью с доктором юридических наук, профессором, председателем Научно-консультативного и экспертного Совета Гильдии российских адвокатов, членом Научно-консультативного Совета Федеральной палаты адвокатов РФ, членом Научно-консультативного Совета при Ве: Интервью с вице-президентом Федеральной палаты адвокатов Российской Федерации С.И. Володиной: Интервью с доктором юридических наук, профессором, президентом Гильдии российских адвокатов, ректором Российской академии адвокатуры и нотариата Гасаном Борисовичем Мирзоевым:
















RUS ENG

PROBLEMS OF ORGANIZATION AND ADVOCACY PROFESSION FUNCTIONING
ESTABLISHING A PERIOD OF PROBATION FOR ADVOCATES IN ORDER TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF PROVIDING UNQUALIFIED LEGAL ASSISTANCE TO CLIENTS
MARCHEVA Polina Evgenyevna
Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL) 125993, Moscow, Sadovaya-Kudrunskaya Str., 9, Russian Federation
Abstract: In the article, the author draws attention to the necessity to amend the current mechanism of admission to the Bar. The actual mechanism does not exclude the of admission to the Bar of those whose personal qualities and individual psychological characteristics do not correspond to the chosen professional activity, which can ultimately lead to occupational destruction and, as a result, to inability to provide qualified legal assistance to clients.
Keywords: advocate, professional legal assistance, Bar examination, reforming of the Bar
References
1.    Vajnerman F.V. K voprosu o ponyatii advokatskoj monopolii i o prave na ee sushhestvovanie v rossijskom zakonodatel`stve // Yuridicheskij vestnik Samarskogo universiteta. 2017. T. 3. № 1. S. 99–105.
2.    Grammatikov V.V. Priroda deformacii pravo-soznaniya (na primere advokatskoj deyatel`nosti) // Aktual`ny`e problemy` rossijskogo prava. 2020. T. 15. № 5
(114). Maj. S. 19–27.
3.    Kolosovskij S. «Pravooxranitel`noe proshloe» advo-kata ne yavlyaetsya opredelyayushhim // Advokatskaya gazeta. 2021. 25 noyabrya [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.advgazeta.ru/mneniya/pravookhranitelnoe-proshloe-advokata-ne-yavlyaetsya-opredelyayushchim/.
4.    Maruste R.A. Professional`naya deformaciya v advokatskoj deyatel`nosti // Problemy` prava na zashhitu. Tallin: Valgus, 1988. S. 76–88.
5.    Minyust Rossii rabotaet nad koncepciej sudebnogo predstavitel`stva [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://fparf. ru/news/fpa/minyust-rossii-rabotaet-nad-kontseptsiey-sudebnogo-predstavitelstva/.
6.    Otchet o deyatel`nosti Soveta Federal`noj palaty` advokatov Rossijskoj Federacii za period s aprelya 2021 goda po aprel` 2023 goda [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// fparf.ru/upload/medialibrary/c1e/y1ape23956d6gzqpc-9uo1vpous0b1m7w/Otchet-Soveta-FPA_2023.pdf.
7.    «Polozhenie o poryadke proxozhdeniya stazhi-rovki» (vmeste s «Poryadkom vedeniya reestra stazherov advokatskoj palaty` sub``ekta Rossijskoj Federacii») (utv. Resheniem Soveta Federal`noj palaty` advokatov RF ot 27.05.2020, protokol № 14). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tant Plyus».
8.    «Polozhenie o poryadke sdachi kvalifikacionnogo e`kzamena i ocenki znanij pretendentov» (utv. resheniem Soveta Federal`noj palaty` advokatov ot 07.03.2023, protokol № 20). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tant Plyus».
9.    Svetova L.N. Psixologicheskie osobennosti profes-sional`noj deformacii advokata: dis. … kand. psixol. nauk / ANO VO «Rossijskij novy`j universitet». M., 2020.
10.    «Standart professional`nogo obucheniya i povy`sheniya professional`nogo urovnya advokatov i stazherov advokatov» (utv. IX Vserossijskim s``ezdom advokatov 18.04.2019). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tant Plyus».
11.    Statisticheskie danny`e Federal`noj palaty` advokatov Rossijskoj Federacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://fparf.ru/practical-information/statistics/.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
ZEROING OUT THE DEADLINES FOR A TAX AUDIT: A CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL TEST
SULTANOV Aydar Rustemovich
Ph.D., Advocate, Honored Lawyer of the Republic of Tatarstan, Head of Representative Office «Руреliaev Group» in Tatarstan
125047, Moscow, ул. 3 Tverskaya-Yamskaya, 39, b. 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article discusses the problem of calculating deadlines in tax relations. The problem is considered on the example of a case that reached the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation. The author believes that the legal positions of the Constitutional Court, which considered the term as, on the one hand, a guarantee of the taxpayer's rights, and on the other, the limits of the restriction of his rights allowed by law, have a broader meaning than the moti-vation for a specific legal problem.
Keywords: preventive deadlines, organizational deadlines, legislative regulation, restriction of rights and freedoms, legal positions of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation
References
1.    Sultanov A.R. Dolzhnaya pravovaya procedura i pravovy`e standarty` Evropejskogo Suda po pravam che-loveka // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2013. № 1(2). S. 62–65.
2.    Arapov N.A. Princip podderzhaniya doveriya grazhdan k zakonu i dejstviyam gosudarstva v rossijskom konstitucionnom prave i pravosudii: dis. kand. yurid.
nauk. SPb., 2015. S. 9.
3.    Sultanov A.R. Bor`ba s probelami v Nalogovom kodekse RF i fiksirovanny`mi ideyami v nalogovy`x spo-rax. M.: Statut, 2022.
4.    Axmetshin R.I. Zakonno li priostanovlenie nalogovoj proverki? // Nalogoved. 2004. № 9. S. 5–9.
5.    Sultanov A.R. Novoyaz, ili chto takoe priostanovlenie vy`ezdnoj nalogovoj proverki // Advokat. 2016. № 4.
S. 5–15.
6.    Sultanov A.R. Kakimi dolzhny` by`t` pravovy`e posledstviya istecheniya srokov davnosti privlecheniya k otvetstvennosti za sovershenie nalogovogo pravonarusheniya // Advokat. 2016. № 3. S. 5–12.
7.    Sultanov A.R. Sroki proverki, sroki davnosti dlya vzy`skaniya i drugie problemy` pravoprimeneniya // Vestnik Gumanitarnogo universiteta. 2023. № 1(40). S. 58–78.
8.    Radbrux G. Filosofiya prava. M., 2004. S. 27.
9.    Pokrovskij I.A. Osnovny`e problemy` grazhdanskogo prava. M., 2003.
10.    Axmetshin R.I. Konstitucionny`j Sud ukazal na nedopustimost` formal`nogo podxoda pri osushhestvlenii nalogovogo kontrolya // E`Zh-Yurist. 2023. № 30 (1281) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.eg-online.ru/ar-ticle/472288.
11.    Sultanov A.R. Formalizm grazhdanskogo processa i standarty` spravedlivogo pravosudiya // Vestnik grazhdanskogo processa. 2012. № 3. S. 73–93.
12.    Zor`kin V.D. Doverie i pravo // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2013. 28 aprelya.
13.    Sultanov A.R. Nastojchivost` v zashhite prav // Pro-log. 2014. № 4. S. 81–86.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRINCIPLES OF REASONABLENESS AND GOOD FAITH IN CIVIL LAW
PEREGUDOVA Veronika Vladimirovna
Magistrature Student of the Faculty of Law of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation 105187, Moscow, Shcherbakovskaya str., 38, Russian FederationAnnotation
Abstract: The concepts of reasonableness and good faith are discussed in great detail in several provisions of the Civil Code of the Russian Federation. There are several factors that contribute to the interest in scientific and applied research of the concepts of reasonableness and integrity. Judicial practice in Russia shows that judges, when resolving cases, are guided by the principles of reasonableness and good faith. They strive for reasonableness and justice, taking into account the interests of both sides. However, the basis of their decisions is the Civil Code. In cases where the Code is not unambiguous, judges have the right to interpret its provisions and make decisions, taking into account the above-mentioned principles. Thus, the judicial practice of Russia combines good faith and reasonableness, providing an opportunity to apply the law in accordance with the specific circumstances of the case.
Keywords: the concept of reasonableness and integrity, the integrity of buyers
References
1.    Grazhdanskij kodeks RF (chast` pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 № 51 (red. ot 24.07.2023).
2.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` vtoraya) ot 26.01.1996 № 14-FZ (red. ot 24.07.2023) (s izm. i dop., vstup. v silu s 12.09.2023).
3.    Postanovlenie Plenuma VS RF ot 23 iyunya 2015 g.
№ 25 «O primenenii sudami otdel`ny`x polozhenij razde-la I chasti pervoj nastoyashhego Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tantPlyus».
4.    Bogdanova E.E. Principy` dobrosovestnosti, spravedlivosti i razumnosti kak osnovny`e nachala grazhdanskogo zakonodatel`stva [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.sovremennoepravo.ru/m/articles/view/ Principy`-dobrosovestnosti-spravedlivosti-i-razumnosti-kak-osnovny`e-nachala-grazhdanskogo-zakonodatel`stva
?ysclid=loyctdebk3767460753/.
5.    Volosatova L.V. Princip razumnosti v realizacii sub``ektivny`x grazhdanskix prav: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2005.
6.    Drozdova T.V. Dobrosovestnost` v rossijskom grazhdanskom prave: dis. … kand. yurid. nauk. Irkutsk, 2004. S. 100.
7.    Emel`yanov V.I. Razumnost`, dobrosovestnost`, ne-zloupotreblenie grazhdanskimi pravami. M., 2002. S. 131.
8.    Ivanova S.A. Princip spravedlivosti v grazhdanskom prave Rossii: avtoref. dis. d-ra yurid. nauk. Vladi-
mir, 2018.
9.    Kommercheskoe pravo. 2008. № 2(3).
10.    Komissarova E.G. Principy` v prave i osnovny`e nachala grazhdanskogo zakonodatel`stva: dis. … d-ra yurid. nauk. Ekaterinburg, 2002.
11.    Koreczkij D.A. Kategoriya razumnosti v grazhdanskom prave, ee sootnoshenie s kategoriej dobrosovestnosti // Filosofiya prava. 2020. № 1 (92) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kategoriya-razumnosti-v-grazhdanskom-prave-ee-sootnoshenie-s-kategoriey-dobrosovestnost.
12.    Tatarnikov A.A. Principy` razumnosti i dobrosovestnosti v grazhdanskom prave Rossii: dis. ... kand. yurid. nauk. M., 2010.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
THE CONCEPT AND SEPARATE LEGAL BASES OF THE EXPERT'S ACTIVITY DURING THE INTERNAL FINANCIAL AUDIT
NOVITSKAYA Ludmila Yurevna1, ORLOVSKAYA Marina Anatolyevna2
1Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
125167, Moscow, Leningradsky ave., 49, Russian Federation
2Ph.D., Associate Professor, Chief Specialist of JSC «Russian Space Systems» 111024, Moscow, Aviamotornaya str., 53, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article examines the concept of «expert» as a legal category used in the conduct of internal financial audit and audit control measures, as well as analyzes the legal basis of the expert's activities in the conduct of internal financial audit.
Keywords: internal financial audit, audit control measures, expert, expert organization, chief administrator of budgetary funds, MSF standards, sources of financial law, subject of the VFA, audit group, audit assignment
References
1.    Mezhdunarodny`j standart audita 500 «Auditorskie dokazatel`stva» (vveden v dejstvie na territorii Rossijskoj Federacii Prikazom Minfina Rossii ot 09.01.2019 № 2n). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
2.    Prikaz Minfina Rossii ot 05.08.2020 № 160n «Ob utverzhdenii federal`nogo standarta vnutrennego finanso-vogo audita «Planirovanie i provedenie vnutrennego fi-nansovogo audita». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tantPlyus».

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
THE NEW LAW ON THE LABELING OF ADVERTISING ON THE INTERNET
SEYDVALIEVA Albina Ruslanovna
Student of the Faculty of Law of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation 105187, Moscow, Shcherbakovskaya str., 38, Russian Federation
Abstract: Advertising is an integral element of marketing, which, thanks to its function of promoting various goods and services, plays a key role in business development. Thus, advertising activities on the Internet have gained no less popularity, and therefore cases of unfair and illegal placement of advertising integrations on digital platforms have be-gun to increase. It is for these reasons that a new law on labeling advertising on the Internet was created, which is also an addition to the main Federal Law «On Advertising». Such a law, or more precisely, a new article (18.1 of the Federal Law «On Advertising») provides for the mandatory labeling of advertising on all platforms, including social networks, blogs and other sites.
Keywords: labeling, advertising, Internet, advertisers, advertising data operators, Unified Register of Internet advertising, social networks
References
1.    Fomina A.A. Trebovaniya, pred``yavlyaemy`e k reklame v ramkax rossijskogo zakonodatel`stva // Pravovoj al`manax. 2023. № 4(26). S. 50–56.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
CERTAIN ASPECTS OF PROTECTING CREDITOR'S RIGHTS IN PROCESS OF ADOPTION OF THE EXTERNAL ADMINISTRATION PLAN
MIKHAILOV Dmitrii Yuryevich
Postgraduate Student of the Faculty of Law of the Financial University Under the Government of the Russian Federation 125993, Moscow, Leningradsky ave., 49, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the protection of the rights of creditors in process of adoption of the external administration plan during external administration procedure. The issue of the relationship between the powers of the creditors’ meeting, the court and the debtor in process of adoption is analyzed. The author concluded that the decision of the creditors’ meeting has priority over other participants of bankruptcy proceeding.
Keywords: bankruptcy, external administration, external administration plan, protection of creditors' rights, credi-tors’ meeting, rehabilitation procedures
References
1.    Shajdullin A.I. Zashhita prava kreditorov na infor-maciyu v procedurax bankrotstva // Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava. 2023. № 2. S. 7–49.
2.    Averina A.V. Aktivnaya rol` suda pri vy`bore proce-dury`, primenyaemoj v dele o bankrotstve: kolliziya zako-na i praktika ee preodoleniya // Xozyajstvo i pravo. 2023.
№ 8. S. 110–122.
3.    Koraev K.B. Osobennosti pravovogo polozheniya neplatezhesposobnogo dolzhnika v procedure vneshnego upravleniya // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 2016. № 5. S. 17–20.
4.    Sajfullin R.I. Bankrotstvo arendodatelya: sud`ba obremeneniya v vide prava arendy` // Vestnik e`konomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossijskoj Federacii. 2019.
№ 10. S. 86–136.
5.    Reshenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Goroda Moskvy` ot 25 oktyabrya 2016 g. po delu № A40-184924/2015.
6.    Postanovlenie Arbitrazhnogo suda Severo-Zapad-nogo okruga ot 5 dekabrya 2018 g. № F07-14445/2018 po delu № A56-32219/2012.
7.    Galkin S.S. Sistema sredstv sudebnoj zashh-ity` sub``ektivny`x prav i zakonny`x interesov dolzhnika – yuridicheskogo licza v konkursnom processe // Predprinimatel`skoe pravo: Prilozhenie k zhurnalu «Pra-vo i Biznes». 2016. № 3. S. 55–59.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
THE INSTITUTE OF LIQUIDATED DAMAGES IN THE CIVIL LEGISLATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. DISCUSSION ISSUES OF APPLICATION
KULIKOV Vsevolod Valeryevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Civil and Business Law of All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia)
117638, Moscow, Azovskaya St., 2, b. 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: The present article analyses the possibility of application of the institute of liquidated damages in the civil legislation of the Russian Federation. Based on the available studies of legal scholars, as well as taking into account the existing law enforcement practice on this issue, the author comes to the conclusion that it is possible to apply this institute in the system of civil legislation of the Russian Federation as a special method of calculation of classical damages.
Keywords: liquidated damages, penalty, losses, indemnification, obligations, contractual terms and conditions
References
1.    Egorov A.V. Mesto zaranee ocenenny`x uby`tkov v sisteme chastnogo prava Rossii // E`Zh-Yurist. 2018. № 9.
2.    Zaranee ocenenny`e uby`tki v rossijskom grazhdanskom prave: monografiya / A.V. Syatchixin, otv. red. d-r yurid. nauk, prof. V.G. Golubczov. M.: Prospekt. 2020.
S. 232.
3.    Mikryukov V.A. Rossijskij analog anglo-amerikanskix «Liquidated damages»: perspektivy` zakonodatel`nogo zakrepleniya // Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Yuridicheskie nauki. Vy`p. 3. 2018. Iyun`–senty-abr`.
4.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` per-vaya) ot 30.11.1994 № 51-FZ // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 1994. 5 dekabrya. № 32. St. 3301.
5.    Dogovornoe i obyazatel`stvennoe pravo (obshhaya chast`): postatejny`j kommentarij k stat`yam 307–453 Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii [E`lektronnoe izdanie. Redakciya 1.0] / otv. red. A.G. Karapetov. M.: M-Logos, 2017. S. 1120.
6.    Postanovlenie FAS Severo-Zapadnogo okruga ot 01.04.2014 po delu № A56–47238/2011 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://kad.arbitr.ru/Document/Pdf/ c5f3e510-3126-4175-b36b-c56cd9a75e95/ac18ab25-eb6c-4526-81e0-1253ed86f7a9/A56-47238-2011_20140401_Post-
anovlenie_kassacionnoj_instancii.pdf?isAddStamp=True.
7.    Informacionnoe pis`mo Prezidiuma VAS RF ot 26.02.2013 № 156 // Vestnik VAS RF. 2013. № 5. Maj.
8.    Vol`fson V.L. Nedobrosovestnost` kak diagnoz zloupotrebleniya sub``ektivny`m grazhdanskim pravom: monografiya. M.: Prospekt. 2019. S. 80.
9.    Postanovlenie Plenuma VAS RF ot 14.03.2014 № 16
«O svobode dogovora i ee predelax» // Vestnik VAS RF. 2014. № 5. Maj.
10.    Sennikov S.A., Xrapunova E.A. Poisk modeli primeneniya zaranee ocenenny`x uby`tkov v rossijskom pravo-poryadke // Yuridicheskaya nauka.2023. № 4. S. 192–199.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF ADVOCACY PRACTICE
DESIGN FEATURES OF THE PURCHASE AND SALE AGREEMENT CONCLUDED VIA THE INTERNET
CHIGAEVA Irina Viktorovna
Student of the Faculty of Law of the Financial University Under the Government of the Russian Federation 105187, Moscow, Shcherbakovskaya str., 38, Russian Federation
Abstract: Within the framework of this study, the vector of study will be directed to the characteristic features and features of the conclusion of a contract of sale on the Internet.
Keywords: Internet, contract of sale, buyer, seller, consumer
References
1.    Tolokov S.A. Osobennosti dogovora kupli-prodazhi, osushhestvlyaemoj distancionny`m sposo-bom // Aktual`ny`e problemy` prava i upravleniya glazami molodezhi: materialy` 6-j mezhdunarodnoj nauchnoj stu-dencheskoj konferencii. Tula: Institut zakonovedeniya i upravleniya VPA, 2019. S. 507–518.
2.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ot 30.11.1994 № 51-FZ (s izm. i dop. v red. ot 05.12.2022).
3.    Zakon Rossijskoj Federacii «O zashhite prav potrebitelej» ot 07.02.1992 № 2300-I (s izm. i dop. v red. ot 05.12.2022).
4.    Zakirov R.Yu. Nezaklyuchennost` i nedejstvitel`nost` dogovora // Vestnik e`konomiki, prava i sociologii. 2019.
№ 4. S. 96.
5.    Bel`skaya A.A. Specifika pravovoj prirody` distan-cionnogo sposoba kupli-prodazhi // Vestnik Rossijskogo universiteta kooperacii. 2018. № 2 (32). S. 104.
6.    Federal`ny`j zakon «O personal`ny`x danny`x» ot 27.07.2006 № 152-FZ (s izm. i dop. v red. ot 06.02.2022).
7.    Kornilova N.V. O proizvodny`x sposobax priobre-teniya prava sobstvennosti // Pravo i gosudarstvo: teoriya i praktika. 2018. № 3 (159). S. 26–30.
8.    Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda RF «O rassmotrenii sudami grazhdanskix del po sporam o zashhite prav potrebitelej» ot 28.06.2012 № 17 // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2012. 11 iyulya. № 156.
9.    Belugina E.S. Dogovor distancionnoj kupli-prodazhi tovarov // Innovacionny`j potencial razvitiya obshhestva: vzglyad molody`x ucheny`x: sbornik nauchny`x statej 2-j Vserossijskoj nauchnoj konferencii perspektivny`x raz-rabotok: v 5 t. Kursk: Yugo-Zapadny`j gosudarstvenny`j universitet, 2021. S. 34–37.

HUMAN RIGHTS IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
DIGITALIZATION AS AN ELEMENT OF ENSURING THE PROTECTION OF RIGHTS, FREEDOMS AND LEGITIMATE INTERESTS
KALINOGORSKY Alexander Andreevich
Postgraduate Student at the Department of Advocacy of the Kutafin Moscow State Law University (MSAL) 125993, Moscow, Sadovaya-Kudrunskaya street, 9, Russian Federation
Abstract: At the moment, the world community is focused on solving the most serious problems of the world, such as the need for effective access to justice. For the Russian Federation, promoting the aspirations of the world community is an important part in the implementation of national interests in domestic and foreign policy. And digitalization of the spheres of public life is an additional tool for ensuring the protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and organizations.
Object of the article – to analyze the actual features of digitalization of mechanisms that ensure the implementation and protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and organizations.
This article examines some relevant factors influencing the effectiveness of digitalization of mechanisms that ensure the implementation and protection of the rights, freedoms and legitimate interests of Russian citizens and organizations, identifies future trends and proposes recommendations for improving some areas of public life.
The article concludes that digitalization of spheres of public life, including taking into account international experience, can contribute to the improvement of mechanisms that ensure the implementation and protection of rights, freedoms and legitimate interests and, in the future, can become an investment in ensuring the well-being and prosperity of present and future generations of Russian citizens, as well as contribute to the achievement of a harmonious state of the entire world community.
Keywords: protection of rights and freedoms, access to legal aid, access to justice, new technological basis, digitalization, sustainable development, technological leadership, export of innovations
References
1.    Kalinogorskij A.A. Notariat i cifrovoj format // Pravo i obshhestvo. 2022. № 2 (7). S. 69–72 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.elibrary.ru/download/eli-brary_49545675_99171578.pdf.
2.    Stepanova A.E. Progressivny`e idei iskusstvennogo razuma v kontekste sovremennogo prava Rossii // Vestnik SGYuA. 2023. № 1 (150). S. 89–95 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/progressivnye-idei-iskusstvennogo-razuma-v-kontekste-sovremennogo-pra-va-rossii.
3.    Ukaz Prezidenta Rossijskoj Federacii ot 31 marta 2023 g. № 229 «Ob utverzhdenii Koncepcii vneshnej politiki Rossijskoj Federacii» // Oficial`ny`j internet-portal pravovoj informacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://publi-cation.pravo.gov.ru/document/0001202303310007.
4.    Rasporyazhenie Kollegii Evrazijskoj E`konomicheskoj Komissii ot 25 yanvarya 2022 g. № 8 «Ob utverzhdenii perechnya sfer, trebuyushhix obespecheniya priznaniya e`lektronnoj cifrovoj podpisi (e`lektronnoj podpisi) v e`lektronnom dokumente i obespecheniya yuridicheskoj sily` e`lektronny`x dokumentov pri trans-granichnom vzaimodejstvii xozyajstvuyushhix sub``ektov s organami gosudarstvennoj vlasti gosudarstv – chlenov Evrazijskogo e`konomicheskogo soyuza» // Oficial`ny`j sajt Evrazijskogo e`konomicheskogo soyuza [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://docs.eaeunion.org/docs/ru-ru/01432025/err_31012022_8.
5.    Integrirovannaya informacionnaya sistema Evrazijskogo e`konomicheskogo soyuza [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://system.eaeunion.org/.
6.    Texnologicheskij portal SME`V [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://smev.gosuslugi.ru/portal/.
7.    Uprostit` dokumentooborot. Predsedatel` BNP o klyuchevoj zadache notariatov stran SNG [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.belta.by/society/view/upros-tit-dokumentooborot-predsedatel-bnp-o-kljuchevoj-za-dache-notariatov-stran-sng-601355-2023/.
8.    Ustojchivoe razvitie [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ru/.
9.    European e-Justice Portal – Find a legal professional [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://e-justice.europa. eu/515/EN/find_a_legal_professional.
10.    Trust Federation – X-Road Data Exchange Layer [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://x-road.global/trust-federation.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
PROSPECTS AND ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF USING OF NEURAL NETWORKS IN THE FIELD OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE
PESHKOV Maxim Alekseevich
Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Criminal Law and Procedure Chair of Faculty of Law of the Institute of Economics, Management and Law of Russian State Humanitarian University (RSUH)
125047, Moscow, Miusskaya pl., 6, Russian Federation
Abstract: Considering various types of neural networks, the author examines the potential consequences of their use in the legal system, suggests developing a framework for their use in order to balance the potential benefits with the need to protect the rights and interests of all parties involved. Particular attention is paid to the area of criminal procedure, where the trends outlined above are most clearly manifested.
Keywords: neural network, algorithm for the use of neural networks in the legal system, criminal proceedings, procedural actions using a neural network, protection of the rights and interests of the parties, the fairness of the trial
References
1.    Barrat Dzh. Poslednee izobretenie chelovechestva: iskusstvenny`j intellekt i konecz e`ry` Homo sapiens / per. s angl. N. Lisovoj. 2-e izd. M.: ANF, 2019.
2.    https://cbcyd.github.io/neural-networks.html.
3.    Kibal`nik A.G., Volosyuk P.V. Iskusstvenny`j intellekt: voprosy` ugolovno-pravovoj doktriny`, ozhiday-ushhie otvetov // Yuridicheskaya nauka i praktika: Vestnik Nizhegorodskoj akademii MVD Rossii. 2018. № 4 (44).
S. 173–178.
4.    L`vovich I.Ya., Kravczova N.E., Chuprinskaya Yu.L. Problemy` sozdaniya intellektual`ny`x sistem // Vestnik Voronezhskogo instituta vy`sokix texnologij. 2018. № 2
(25). S. 13–15.
5.    Barsukov, D.A., Volosatova T.M. Sozdanie robota-ishhejki // Mexatronika, avtomatika i robototexnika. 2019.
№ 3. S. 6–9.
6.    Averinskaya S.A., Sevost`yanova A.A. Sozdanie iskusstvennogo intellekta s cel`yu zlonamerennogo ispol`zovaniya v ugolovnom prave Rossijskoj Federacii // Zakon i pravo. 2019. № 2. S. 94–96.
7.    Sokolova A.A. Iskusstvenny`j intellekt v yurispru-dencii: riski vnedreniya // Yuridicheskaya texnika. 2019.
№ 13. S. 350-356.
8.    Voronczov S.A., Mixajlov A.G. O problemax, porozhdaemy`x ispol`zovaniem iskusstvennogo intellekta v pravooxranitel`noj deyatel`nosti // Rostovskij nauchny`j zhurnal. 2019. № 3. S. 189–195.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
FEATURES OF ESTABLISHING AND PROVING THE LEGALIZATION (LAUNDERING) OF FUNDS USING CRYPTOCURRENCIES
VASILYEVA Oxana Nikolaevna1, MILOVANOVA Marina Mikhailovna2
1Ph.D., Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department Legal Regulation of Economic Activity Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
125167, Moscow, Leningradsky Ave., 49, Russian Federation
2Ph.D., Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Kutafin Moscow State Law University 123001, Moscow, Sadovaya Kudrinskaya str., 9, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article deals with issues related to the establishment and proof of the fact of committing crimes under Articles 174 and 174.1 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. A comprehensive analysis of scientific sources, investigative and judicial practice materials, and a survey of law enforcement officials revealed problems related to the identification and disclosure of money laundering using cryptocurrencies, and determined the algorithm for their solution.
Keywords: cryptocurrency, criminal activity, money laundering, legalization, circumstances to be established, evi-dence
References
1.    Postanovlenie Plenuma Verxovnogo Suda RF ot 07.07.2015 № 32 «O sudebnoj praktike po delam o legaliza-cii (otmy`vanii) denezhny`x sredstv ili inogo imushhestva, priobretenny`x prestupny`m putem, i o priobretenii ili sby`te imushhestva, zavedomo doby`togo prestupny`m putem» (red. ot 26.02.2019) [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_18 2365/?ysclid=lp0912esxw187218908.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
ON SOME CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF XENOPHOBIC MANIFESTATIONS IN THE CONDITIONS OF MODERN THREATS TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIETY
AKIMENKO Marina Alekseevna
Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of International Law, Justice and Law Enforcement, Law Institute of Pyatigorsk State University
357532, Pyatigorsk, Kalinina str., 9, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article discusses some aspects of the development of society that affect the growth of xenophobic sentiments in the modern world. The authors also proposed some measures to reduce the level of xenophobia, and, accordingly, extremist crimes.
Keywords: xenophobia, extremism, ethnocriminology, social conditions
References
1.    Ksenofobiya-2022: kak izmenilos` otnoshenie k rossiyanam za rubezhom [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://36on.ru/magazine/society/103097.
2.    Rusofobiya 2023 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// hikeit.ru/news/stop-hating-russians.
3.    Ksenofobiya, svoboda sovesti i antie`kstremizm v Rossii v 2021 godu: sbornik ezhegodny`x dokladov Infor-macionno-analiticheskogo centra «Sova» / V. Al`perovich,
M.A. Kravchenko, O.A. Sibiryova, N.Yu. Yudina; pod red.
A.M. Verxovskogo. M.: Centr «Sova», 2022.
4.    Mukomel` V.I. Ksenofoby` i ix antipody`: kto oni? // Mir Rossii. 2017. T. 26. № 1. S. 32–57.
5.    Txabisimova L.A. Profilaktika e`kstremizma v molodezhnoj srede // Aktual`ny`e problemy` protivodejstviya e`kstremizmu: materialy` mezhdunarodnoj nauch-no-prakticheskoj konferencii, Vladikavkaz, 20 aprelya 2018 goda. Vladikavkaz: Severo-Kavkazskij gorno-met-allurgicheskij institut (gosudarstvenny`j texnologicheskij universitet), 2018. S. 36–40.

JUSTICE AND LAW-ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY IN THE EURASIAN SPACE
PROCEEDINGS IN COURT WITH THE PARTICIPATION OF JURORS AS A WAY TO ENSURE THE OPENNESS OF CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGS
ZOTOVA Anna Fedorovna1, SINKEVICH Veronika Viktorovna2
1Senior lecturer of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the Educational and Scientific Complex on Preliminary Investigation in the Internal Affairs Bodies of the Volgograd Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Police Lieutenant Colonel
400075,Volgograd, st. Historical, 130, Russian Federation
2Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Criminal Procedure of the Educational and Scientific Complex on Preliminary Investigation in the Internal Affairs Bodies of the Volgograd Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Police Colonel
400075,Volgograd, st. Historical, 130, Russian Federation
Abstract: Openness of the criminal process is one of the basic principles of criminal proceedings. This principle is enshrined in international documents, which speak of the need for openness and publicity of procedures before the court. In this article the authors considered the importance of openness in criminal proceedings and its role in ensuring human rights and justice.
Keywords: criminal procedure, openness, criminal proceedings, principle of criminal procedure, court, prosecu-tor, accused
References
1.    Abasheva F.A. Princip zakonnosti v arbitrazhnom processe. Izhevsk: Izhevskij filial Nizhegorodskoj akademii MVD Rossii, 2010. S. 41.
2.    Momotov V.V. Sudejskoe soobshhestvo i sredstva massovoj informacii // Sud`ya. 2019. № 5(101). S. 8–13.
3.    Anosova L.S. Sootnoshenie ponyatij glasnosti, otkry`tosti i transparentnosti sudoproizvodstva: kon-stitucionno-pravovy`e aspekty` // Konstitucionnoe i municipal`noe pravo. 2019. № 21. S. 29.
4.    Ivanov A.A. Princip zakonnosti yuridicheskoj otvetstvennosti. Tol`yatti: Tol`yattinskij gosudarstvenny`j universitet, 2010. S. 55.
5.    Podol`ny`j N.V. Osnovaniya prinyatiya processual`-ny`x reshenij // Rossijskaya yusticiya. 1999. S. 40–41.
6.    Manaev Yu.V., Repkin L.M. Sostavlenie processual`ny`x aktov sledstviya. Volgograd, 1981. S. 53.
7.    Sarkisyan S.A. Vvedenie v teoriyu prinyatiya reshenij // Teoriya prognozirovaniya i prinyatiya reshenij. M.: Vy`sshaya shkola, 2020. S. 48.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
PECULIARITIES OF REGULATION OF RIGHTS TO THE RESULTS OF INTELLECTUAL ACTIVITY IN UNIVERSITIES
SHCHERBAK Evgeniy Nikolaevich
LL.D., Professor, Professor of the Department of Financial Law of the Faculty of Law of the Insitute of Economics, Management and Law of Russian State University for the Humanities
125047, Moscow, Miusskaya Square, 6, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article discusses the specific features of the implementation of the rights of educational organizations to the results of intellectual activity created by university employees. Particular attention is paid to attempts to legislate legal mechanisms for the circulation of exclusive rights of universities. The main provisions of the Universities Policy in the Field of Intellectual Property in Educational Activities, which are recommended by WIPO, are analyzed Trends in copyright management are identified and themain ways of protecting copyright materials created in a humanities university are identified.
Keywords: intellectual property, copyrights, service works, protection and protection of copyright
References
1.    Agranovich M. Uchastnikami programmy` «Pri-oritet 2030» stali 106 universitetov // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2021. 29 sentyabrya.
2.    Konstantinova L.V., Petrov A.M., Shty`xno D.A. Pereosmy`slenie podxodov k urovnevoj sisteme vy`sshego obrazovaniya v Rossii v usloviyax vy`xoda iz Bolonskogo processa // Vy`sshee obrazovanie v Rossii. 2023. № 2.
S. 9–24.
3.    Shherbak E.N. Problemy` intellektual`noj sobstvennosti v obrazovanii v e`poxu cifrovy`x texnologij // Ci-frovaya transformaciya: obrazovanie, nauka, obshhestvo. 2019. S. 254–262.
4.    Shherbak E.N. Pravovy`e osobennosti vnedreniya politiki universitetov v oblasti intellektual`noj sobstvennosti v deyatel`nost` gumanitarny`x vuzov // Yurist. 2023.
№ 12. S. 14–19.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
DEVELOPMENT TRENDS AND PROSPECTS OF REGULATION OF RELATED PARTY TRANSACTIONS
NARAYKIN Oleg Valeryevich
Postgraduate Student of the Moscow Financial and Industrial University «Synergy» 125190, Moscow, Leningradsky ave., 80, Russian Federation
Abstract: The purpose of the study is to identify the most significant trends in the development of legal regulation of related-party transactions and to establish prospects for the deregulation of these relations.
The presented scientific work is based on a sufficiently deep methodological base and general scientific methods of cognition of legal research, such as synthesis, method of analogy, formal logic, comparative legal method and others, including private scientific methods used to establish the most promising trends in the development of legal regulation of transactions with an interest in Russian corporate practice.
Having subjected to a careful and comprehensive analysis of the actual problems of the institution of interested-party transactions, the author comes to the conclusion that it is necessary to determine the potential possibility of the legislator's refusal from the legal regulation of these transactions, however, for these purposes it is necessary to identify and assess the general trends of such regulation. It has been established that non-public companies are legally pro-vided with the opportunity to consolidate in their constituent documents the possibility of almost complete rejection of the institution of interested-party transactions. These rules do not apply to public companies, which seems to the author of the work appropriate from the point of view of protecting the rights of minority shareholders.
The institution of interested-party transactions arose due to the need to ensure regulatory protection of the interests of organizations and their participants and to prevent damage caused by unfair actions of interested parties.
The article has high scientific value, since it is argued that one of the main trends of the institute considered in this article is also the attempts made by the legislator to resolve the issue of finding the optimal balance between imperative and dispositive norms of law governing the procedure for concluding and challenging interested-party transactions.
It is proposed not to follow the path of discrimination against minority shareholders and restriction of their rights, but to try to ensure an optimal balance of interests through equal protection of the rights of all shareholders (participants) and an increase in the number of ways of such protection (recovery of losses from the person through whose fault the transaction was concluded, filing demands for his exclusion from the organization, etc.). It should be noted that there is a reduction in the number of agreed transactions and a decrease in the overall level of bureaucratization in organizations due to the introduction of the concept of «controlling person», an increase in the threshold value for the need to coordinate interested-party transactions, as well as the establishment of freedom of regulation of such transactions for non-public companies.
Keywords: legal entities, transactions, affiliation, controlling person, regulation of related party transactions, cor-porations
References
1.    Ukaz Prezidenta Rossijskoj Federacii ot 18 iyulya 2008 goda № 1108 «O sovershenstvovanii Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii». Dostup iz informacionnoj pravovoj sistemy` «Garant».
2.    Gabov A.V. Institut krupnoj sdelki v rossijskom prave: osnovny`e e`tapy`, tendencii i perspektivy` razvitiya // Predprinimatel`skoe pravo. 2018. № 3. S. 3–30.
3.    Gutnikov O.V. Razvitie korporativnogo zakonoda-tel`stva // Nauchny`e koncepcii razvitiya zakonodatel`stva: monografiya / otv. red.: T.Ya. Xabrieva, M.Yu. Tixomirov. M., 2017. S. 451–463.
4.    Levushkin A.N., Tyulin A.V. Deepfake i sistemy` iskusstvennogo intellekta v paradigme razvitiya cifrovogo prava // Yurist. 2021. № 11. S. 19–24.
5.    Levushkin A.N. Realizaciya prav suprugov pri osushhestvlenii deyatel`nosti yuridicheskogo licza // Zhurnal rossijskogo prava. 2016. № 3. S. 47–55.
6.    Levushkin A.N. Konflikt interesov mezhdu sub``ektami korporativny`x pravootnoshenij pri provede-nii sdelok s akciyami // Aktual`ny`e problemy` rossijskogo prava. 2022. № 12. S. 168–174.
7.    Levushkin A.N. Obespechenie balansa interesov mazhoritarny`x i minoritarny`x akcionerov v korporativ-ny`x pravootnosheniyax // Grazhdanskoe pravo. 2022.
№ 6. S. 14–18.
8.    Lomakin D.V. Korporativny`e prava uchast-nikov xozyajstvenny`x obshhestv: aktual`ny`e prob-lemy` i perspektivy` normativnogo regulirovaniya // Predprinimatel`skoe pravo. 2018. № 2. S. 28–34.
9.    Makovskaya A.A. Imperativny`e i dispozitivny`e normy` v korporativnom zakonodatel`stve (oshibki v formulirovkax, problemy` tolkovaniya i pravoprimeneniya) // Vestnik grazhdanskogo prava. 2019. № 5. S. 79–109.
10.    Narajkin O.V. Primenenie ipoteki pri dolevom stroitel`stve: tendencii i perspektivy` // Pravo i e`konomika. 2023. № 8. S. 23–28.
11.    Perova Yu.A. Novelly` v zakonodatel`stve o krupny`x sdelkax i sdelkax s zainteresovannost`yu // Obrazovanie i pravo. 2017. № 4. S. 37–40.
12.    Stepanov D.I. Novy`j rezhim osparivaniya krupny`x sdelok: reforma radi reformy`? // Zakon. 2015. № 9. S. 110–141.
13.    Fejzraxmanova D.R. Reformirovanie instituta krupny`x sdelok i sdelok s zainteresovannost`yu: rezul`taty`, problemy` i perspektivy` // Aktual`ny`e problemy` rossijskogo prava. 2018. № 11 (96) (noyabr`). S. 14–18.
14.    Shitkina I.S. Osobennosti razvitiya sovremennogo korporativnogo zakonodatel`stva i tendencii pravoprimenitel`noj praktiki // Vestnik e`konomicheskogo pravosudiya Rossijskoj Federacii. 2018. № 9. S. 45–65.
15.    Yuridicheskie licza v rossijskom grazhdanskom prave: monografiya: v 3 t. T. 1. Obshhie polozheniya o yuridicheskix liczax / otv. red. A.V. Gabov, O.V. Gutnikov,
S.A. Sinicyn. M., 2015.
16.    Yakubovskaya L.R. Znachenie e`tapa kvalifikacii v yuridicheskoj procedure odobreniya sdelok organami upravleniya akcionernogo obshhestva // Vestnik e`konomiki, prava i sociologii. 2014. № 2. C. 158–161.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
ON THE ISSUE OF LEGAL REGULATION OF SELF-REGULATION OF PUBLIC RELATIONS ACTIVITIES IN RUSSIA
LUKIANENKO Sofia Aleksandrovna
Student of Faculty of Law of Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation 125167, Moscow, Leningradsky Avenue, 49/2, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the legal status and regulation of self-regulation in the field of PR activities in the Russian Federation. The author examines the key regulations defining the foundations of the PR indus-try, and identifies problems associated with the lack of clear legislative regulation of this area. The author highlights the advantages and disadvantages of the current system of self-regulation in the HR sphere.
Keywords: PR activity, advertising activity, self-regulation, state regulation, control
References
1. Chem otlichaetsya PR ot reklamy` // PRBook[E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://prbook.ru/chem-otlichaetsja-pr-ot-reklamy.
2. Reklamny`j Sovet Rossii // Industriya reklamy`, 2009–2022 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://adindustry.ru/organizations/1186.
3. Osnovy` reklamy`: uchebnik / A.N. Mudrov.2-e izd., pererab. i dop. M.: Magistr, 2008 [E`lektronny`jresurs]. URL:https://uchebana5.ru/cont/1949580.html.
4. Bajbaty`rova N.M. Zhurnalistskaya e`tika imezhdunarodny`e organizacii zhurnalistov na sovremennome`tape // Voprosy` lingvistiki i literaturovedeniya.2008. № 3. S. 63–67.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
BUDGET RESPONSIBILITY AND BUDGET COERCTION MEASURES
TIMOFEEV Stanislav Vladimirovich
LL.D., Professor, the Head of the Department of Financial Law, Faculty of Law of Institute of Economics, Management and Law, Russian State University for the Humanities (RSUH)
125047, Moscow, Miusskaya pl., 6, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article discusses the types and measures of legal liability for offenses in the budgetary sphere, as well as budgetary measures of liability. Attention is paid to the fact that today the allocation of budgetary responsibility as a separate category of legal responsibility in both the financial and budgetary spheres is not currently practiced; the procedure for bringing subjects of relevant relations to budgetary and legal responsibility has not been enshrined in the norms Budget Code of the Russian Federation. An analysis is made of the scientific debate concerning the simi-larities and differences between such definitions related to financial and legal doctrine and lawmaking as a tort in the budgetary sphere and a violation of budgetary legislation. A conclusion is made about the advisability of normatively consolidating the concept of «budget violation» instead of the currently used terms «budget violation» and «violation of budget legislation».
Keywords: Legal liability, Budget Code of the Russian Federation, budget, budget system, violation of budget legislation, budget violation
References
1. Shichanin M.A. Ponyatie i vidy` otvetstvennosti za narushenie byudzhetnogo zakonodatel`stva // Zakony`Rossii: opy`t, analiz, praktika. 2019. № 6. S. 91–95.
2. Karnovich V.S. Osnovaniya nastupleniya otvetstvennosti za narusheniya byudzhetnogo zakonodatel`stva //Nauka i innovacii v XXI veke: aktual`ny`e voprosy`, otkry`tiya i dostizheniya: sbornik statej V Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii: v 2 ch. 2017.S. 115–118.
3. Rovnejko R.V. K voprosu o sushhestvovanii byudzhetny`x narushenij // Zakonnost` I pravoporyadok v sovremennom obshhestve: sbornik materialov XXXVII Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii. 2017. C. 12–125.
4. Komyagin D.L. Byudzhetnaya otvetstvennost` //Vestnik Universiteta im. O.E. Kutafina (mgyua). M.: icz Un-ta im. O.E. Kutafina (mgyua). 2014. № 4. S. 98–107.
5. Pozdnyakova E.V., Pravdina M.I. Byudzhetny`e pravonarusheniya kak osnovanie byudzhetno-pravovoj otvetstvennosti // Nauka i mir. 2015. T. 1. № 8 (24). S. 98–100.
6. Idrisova N.G. K voprosu o ponyatii i priznakax byudzhetnogo pravonarusheniya // Evrazijskij yuridicheskij zhurnal. 2018. № 8 (123). S. 193–195.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
COMPARATIVE LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE TRUST MANAGEMENT OF SHARES IN THE AUTHORIZED CAPITAL OF A LIMITED LIABILITY COMPANY UNDER THE LEGISLATION OF CERTAIN CIS COUNTRIES AND RUSSIA
KHARIN Vasily Ivanovich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Civil and Business Law of the All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia)
117638, Moscow, Azovskaya str., 2, room 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article presents a comparative analysis of the legal regulation of the trust management of shares of commercial corporate organizations in Russia and certain CIS countries (Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan). It is noted that the legislation in this part largely coincides due to the fact that the previously mentioned countries were part of the USSR and have common legal roots. It is established that the Russian legislation on the trust management of LLC shares can be called relatively complete in comparison with other CIS countries. It is revealed that some legislators are making changes on the issue of regulating the trust management of shares of commercial corporate organizations, whose experience can be taken into account when making changes to domestic legislation.
Keywords: contract, trust management of property, share in the authorized capital of a limited liability company, CIS countries, comparative legal analysis, protection and management of property
References
1.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 № 51-FZ // Rossijskaya gazeta. 1994.
№ 238-239. 8 dekabrya.
2.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` vtoraya) ot 26.01.1996 № 14-FZ // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva RF. 1996. 29 yanvarya. № 5. St. 410.
3.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` tret`ya) ot 26.11.2001 № 146-FZ // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2001.
№ 233. 28 noyabrya.
4.    Federal`ny`j zakon ot 25.12.2008 № 273-FZ «O protivodejstvii korrupcii» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2008. № 266. 30 dekabrya.
5.    Federal`ny`j zakon ot 29.07.2017 № 259-FZ «O vnesenii izmenenij v chasti pervuyu, vtoruyu i tret`yu Grazhdanskogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 2017. № 172. 4 avgusta.
6.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Respubliki Armeniya ot 28.07.1998 № 3R-239 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http:// www.parliament.am/law_docs/050598HO239rus. html?lang=rus.
7.    Zakon Respubliki Armeniya «O publichnoj slu-zhbe» ot 26.05.2011 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// www.arlis.am/DocumentView.aspx?docid=132058.
8.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Respubliki Belarus` ot 07.12.1998 № 218-Z [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// pravo.by/document/?guid=3871&p0=hk9800218.
9.    Zakon Respubliki Belarus` «O bor`be s korrupciej» ot 15.07.2015 № 305-Z [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// etalonline.by/document/?regnum=h11500305.
10.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Respubliki Kazaxstan (obsh-haya chast`) ot 27.12.1994. № 269-XII [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1006061.
11.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Respubliki Kazaxstan (osoben-naya chast`) ot 01.07.1999 № 410-1 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=1013880.
12.    Zakon Respubliki Kazaxstan «O protivodejstvii kor-rupcii» ot 18.11.2015 № 410-V ZRK [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/Z1500000410.
13.    Zakon Respubliki Kazaxstan «O vnesenii izmenenij i dopolnenij v nekotory`e zakonodatel`ny`e akty` RK po voprosam okazaniya gosudarstvenny`x uslug» ot 25.11.2019 № 272-VІ [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// adilet.zan.kz/rus/docs/Z1900000272.
14.    Zakon Respubliki Kazaxstan «O vnesenii izmenenij i dopolnenij v nekotory`e zakonodatel`ny`e akty` Re-
spubliki Kazaxstan po voprosam stimulirovaniya inno-vacij, razvitiya cifrovizacii, informacionnoj bezopasnosti i obrazovaniya» ot 14.07.2022 № 141-VII [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_ id=33516174.
15.    Semenov D.A. Osobennosti modeli korporativnogo upravleniya v otechestvennoj e`konomike // Pravovoj al`manax. 2022. № 4(17). S. 45–52.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
COMPARISON OF LEGAL REGULATION OF A CONVERTIBLE LOAN AGREEMENT IN THE USA AND RUSSIA
TROFIMOV Ilya Petrovich
Postgraduate student of the Department of Civil Law Disciplines of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, partner and Head of the Legal Consulting Department of TIM Consulting Group LLC
117997, Moscow, Stremyanny Lane, 36, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article is devoted to topical aspects of regulation of the convertible loan agreement under the legislation of Russia and the USA. It is noted that in American practice, the convertible loan agreement is widely popular, and therefore its standardized form (the SAFE contractual construction) has been developed and adapted. In Russia, the convertible loan agreement is a novel, the applied significance of which is beyond doubt. However, this agreement has not been reflected in civil legislation. Domestic legal services have attempted to adapt the American experience in the direction of developing a single standard for a convertible loan agreement. It seems that in the near future it is necessary to continue active regulatory and practical work towards improving the mechanism for applying a convertible loan.
Keywords: convertible loan, corporate relations, business entity, corporate agreement, investment investments
References
1.    Ilyushina M.N. Dogovor konvertiruemogo zajma kak novy`j dogovorno-obyazatel`stvenny`j mexanizm reg-
ulirovaniya korporativny`x otnoshenij v obshhestvax s ogranichennoj otvetstvennost`yu // Grazhdanskoe pravo. 2022. № 3. S. 31–35.
2.    Ilyushina M.N. Konvertiruemy`j zaem: problemy` primeneniya pravil o zaemny`x operaciyax v korporativny`x otnosheniyax // Bankovskoe pravo. 2023. № 1. S. 19–26.
3.    Kachalova A.V. Dogovor konvertiruemogo zajma // Vestnik universiteta im. O.E. Kutafina. 2021. № 11 (87).
S. 206–215.
4.    Brealey R., Myers S., Allen F. Principles of Corporate Finance. 13th ed. New York, McGraw Hill, 2020.
5.    Gilson R., Gordon J. Agency Costs of Agency Capi-talism // Columbia Law Review. 2013. Vol. 113. P. 863–928.
6.    Gilson R., Gordon J. Changes in Ownership Produce Changes in Corporate Governance: The American Example of Ownership Reconcentration // Siekmann H., ed. Festschrift fur Theodor Baums. Tubingen, 2017. P. 485–507.

ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF LAW SCIENCE AND PRACTICE
ON THE PROBLEMS OF APPLYING INTERNATIONAL TREATIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR COUNTERING HYBRID MISMATCH ARRANGEMENTS
KHARIN Alexander Konstantinovich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Financial Law of Faculty of Law of Lomonosov Moscow State University 119991, Moscow, Leninskie Gory, 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article is devoted to the analysis of the main legal and political problems of applying the existing provisions of international tax treaties of the Russian Federation, aimed at countering hybrid mismatch arrangements. Keywords: hybrid mismatch arrangements, hybrid structured arrangements, DTT, double taxation treaties, MLI,
BEPS, international taxation, international tax law, SAAR, special anti-tax avoidance rules
References
1.    Mnogostoronnyaya konvenciya po vy`polneniyu mer, otnosyashhixsya k nalogovy`m soglasheniyam, v celyax protivodejstviya razmy`vaniyu nalogovoj bazy` i vy`vodu priby`li iz-pod nalogooblozheniya (Zaklyuchena v g. Parizhe 24.11.2016). Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj siste-my` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
2.    Federal`ny`j zakon ot 26.05.2021 № 139-FZ «O denonsacii Soglasheniya mezhdu Pravitel`stvom Rossijskoj Federacii i Pravitel`stvom Korolevstva Niderlandov ob izbezhanii dvojnogo nalogooblozheniya i predotvrashhenii ukloneniya ot nalogooblozheniya v otnoshenii nalogov na doxody` i imushhestvo». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj siste-my` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
3.    Federal`ny`j zakon ot 28.02.2023 № 40-FZ «O denonsacii Soglasheniya mezhdu Pravitel`stvom Rossijskoj Federacii i Pravitel`stvom Latvijskoj Respubliki ob izbezhanii dvojnogo nalogooblozheniya i o predotvrashhenii ukloneniya ot uplaty` nalogov v otnoshenii nalogov na doxody` i kapital». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tantPlyus».
4.    Prikaz FNS Rossii ot 28.10.2022 № ED-7-17/987@
«Ob utverzhdenii Perechnya gosudarstv (territorij), ne obespechivayushhix obmen informaciej dlya celej nalogooblozheniya s Rossijskoj Federaciej». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
5.    Postanovlenie Konstitucionnogo Suda RF ot 25.06.2015 № 16-P «Po delu o proverke konstitucionnosti punkta 2 stat`i 207 i stat`i 216 Nalogovogo kodeksa Rossijskoj Federacii v svyazi s zhaloboj grazhdanina Respub-
liki Belarus` S.P. Lyarskogo». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
6.    Informacionnoe soobshhenie o denonsacii Soglasheniya mezhdu Pravitel`stvom Rossijskoj Federacii i Pravitel`stvom Ukrainy` ob izbezhanii dvojnogo nalogooblozheniya doxodov i imushhestva i predotvrashhenii ukloneniya ot uplaty` nalogov ot 08.02.1995. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
7.    Xavanova I.A. Mezhdunarodny`e dogovory` Rossijskoj Federacii ob izbezhanii dvojnogo nalogooblozheniya: monografiya / pod red. I.I. Kucherova. M.: IziSP: Yurispru-denciya, 2016. S. 124.
8.    Brauner Y. An Essay on BEPS, Sovereignty and Taxation // Tax Sovereignty in the BEPS Era. Series of International Taxation. Vol. 60. Kluwer Law International. 2017.
P. 73–95.
9.    De Boer R., Marres O. BEPS Action 2: Neutralising the Effects of Hybrid Mismatch Arrangements // Intertax. 2015. № 43. P. 14.
10.    Rocha S.A. The Other Side of BEPS // Tax Sovereignty in the BEPS Era. Series of International Taxation. Vol. 60. Kluwer Law International. 2017. P. 179–201.
11.    MLI Database – Matrix of options and reservations [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.oecd.org/tax/ treaties/mli-database-matrix-options-and-reservations. htm.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
DIRECTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF INSTITUTIONS AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR GOVERNANCE OF STATE JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES
YAKOVLEV Alexander Yurievich
LL.D., Leading Researcher of Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy of Sciences 117218, Moscow, Nakhimovsky pr., 32, Russian Federation
Abstract: Russian institutions and law are not ideal. A considerable number of problems exist in the civil law and public law spheres. In particular, they exist in governance of joint-stock companies with federal and regional participation. In this scientific work along with the designation of the problem area directions for improving (development) institutions and the legal framework for governing companies with the participation of a state shareholder will be considered. Among them: unification of governance procedures; introduction of clear criteria for classifying joint-stock companies into a certain category; transformation of the institution of directives, etc.
Keywords: joint-stock company, joint-stock company with state participation, state joint-stock company, legal support of governing, legal framework for governing
References
1.    Grazhdanskij kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii (chast` pervaya) ot 30.11.1994 № 51-FZ Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
2.    Kodeks Rossijskoj Federacii ob administrativny`x pravonarusheniyax ot 30.12.2001 № 195-FZ. Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
3.    Federal`ny`j zakon ot 26.12.1995 № 208-FZ «Ob akcionerny`x obshhestvax». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
4.    Federal`ny`j zakon ot 02.05.2006 № 59-FZ «O poryadke rassmotreniya obrashhenij grazhdan Rossijskoj Federacii». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tantPlyus».
5.    Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 04.08.2004 № 1009 «Ob utverzhdenii Perechnya strategicheskix predpriyatij i strategicheskix akcionerny`x obshhestv». Dostup iz sprav.-pra-vovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
6.    Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva RF ot 03.12.2004 № 738
«Ob upravlenii naxodyashhimisya v federal`noj sobstvennosti akciyami akcionerny`x obshhestv i ispol`zovanii special`nogo prava na uchastie Rossijskoj Federacii v upravlenii akcionerny`mi obshhestvami («zolotoj akcii»)». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
7.    Rasporyazhenie Pravitel`stva RF ot 23.01.2003
№ 91-r «Ob utverzhdenii perechnej OAO, v otnoshenii kotory`x opredelenie pozicii akcionera – RF po otdel`ny`m voprosam osushhestvlyaetsya Pravitel`stvom RF...». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
8.    Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva Moskvy` ot 03.07.2007
№ 576-PP «O poryadke vzaimodejstviya organov ispolnitel`noj vlasti goroda Moskvy` pri realizacii prav akcionera…». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy`
«Konsul`tantPlyus».
9.    Pis`mo Banka Rossii ot 10.04.2014 № 06-52/2463 «O Kodekse korporativnogo upravleniya». Dostup iz sprav.-pravovoj sistemy` «Konsul`tantPlyus».
10.    Glazunova I.V. Problemny`e voprosy` publichno-pravovoj otvetstvennosti yuridicheskogo licza // Sibirskoe yuridicheskoe obozrenie. 2019. № 4. S. 512–517.
11.    Korporativny`j uroven` sistemy` GiMU v Rossii // Informacionno-obrazovatel`ny`j portal «Gosudarstvennoe i municipal`noe upravlenie» [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: http://gimyrf.ru/corporativnyj_uroven/.
12.    Pavlov A.Yu., Danilov I.A. O kriteriyax subsidiarnoj otvetstvennosti // Yuridicheskij mir. 2022. № 3. S. 48–49.
13.    Petuxov S.V., Racheeva Yu.V. Subsidiarnaya otvet-stvennost` kontroliruyushhix licz v kontekste principa pravovoj opredelennosti // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2023.
№ 3. S. 62–65.
14.    Smotriczkaya I.I., Anchishkina O.V., Cherny`x S.I. Problemy` i strategicheskie zadachi razvitiya instituta obshhestvenny`x zakupok // Problemy` prognozirovaniya. 2017. № 5. S. 70–78.
15.    Smotriczkaya I.I., Frolova N.D. Osobennosti razvitiya instituta korporativnogo upravleniya v rossijskoj e`konomike // Obshhestvo i e`konomika. 2023. № 3. S. 5–6.
16.    Smotriczkaya I.I., Frolova N.D. Upravlenie v kom-paniyax s gosudarstvenny`m uchastiem: e`mpiricheskij analiz s uchetom otraslevy`x e`ffektov // Menedzhment i biznes-administrirovanie. 2022. № 2. S. 100–112.
17.    Yakovlev A.Yu. Problemy` primeneniya prava i funk-cionirovaniya institutov upravleniya gosudarstvenny`mi akcionerny`mi obshhestvami // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2023. № 5. S. 114–118.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
YOUTH GOVERNMENTS IN THE VOLGA FEDERAL DISTRICT: SOME PECULIARITIES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF ACTIVITY
BUDZISHVILI Tsira Zurabovna
Competitor of Constitutional and Administrative Law Sub-Faculty of the Kazan (Privolzhie) Federal University 420008, Kazan, Kremlin Str., 18, Russian Federation
Abstract: The article analyzes the activity of Youth Governments as consultative and advisory bodies established under the executive authorities in the Volga Federal District. Some peculiarities of organization of their activity are stud-ied. Thus, for example, the rights and duties of youth governments, as well as the rights and duties of members of youth governments, which function and carry out their activities in the Volga Federal District, are considered.
Keywords: levels of public authority, youth policy, youth public associations, youth parliaments, youth governments
References
1.    Bol`shaya sovetskaya e`nciklopediya: v 30 t. / gl. red.
A.M. Proxorov. 3-e izd. M.: Sovetskaya E`nciklopediya, 1975. S. 475.
2.    Konstituciya Rossijskoj Federacii ot 12 dekabrya 1993 g. (v red. ot 4 oktyabrya 2022 g.) // Oficial`ny`j internet-portal pravovoj informacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://pravo.gov.ru.
3.    Federal`ny`j konstitucionny`e zakon ot 6 noyabrya 2020 g. № 4-FKZ «O Pravitel`stve Rossijskoj Federacii» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva Rossijskoj Federacii. 2020. 9 noyabrya. № 43. St. 7061.
4.    Sulejmanova S.R. Molodezhny`e obshhestvenny`e ob``edineniya Rossii i iny`x stran SNG: monografiya. M.: Prospekt, 2023.
5.    Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva Respubliki Bashkortostan ot 23 aprelya 2019 g. № 244 (v red. ot 20 iyunya 2022 g.) «O sozdanii Molodezhnogo pravitel`stva Respubliki Bashkortostan» // Vedomosti Gosudarstvennogo Sobraniya – Kurultaya Glavy` i Pravitel`stva Respubliki Bashkortostan. 2019. 13 iyunya. № 17(635). St. 906.
6.    Ukaz Glavy` Respubliki Mordoviya ot 6 aprelya 2022 g. № 123-UG «O Molodezhnom pravitel`stve Respubliki Mordoviya» // Izvestiya Mordovii. 2022. 8 aprelya. № 37-15.
7.    Ukaz Glavy` Chuvashskoj Respubliki ot 23 yanvarya
2020 g. № 7 (v red. ot 5 oktyabrya 2020 g.) «O sozdanii Molodezhnogo pravitel`stva Chuvashskoj Respubliki» // Sobranie zakonodatel`stva Chuvashskoj Respubliki. 2015. 12 aprelya. № 1. St. 7.
8.    Postanovlenie Pravitel`stva Orenburgskoj oblasti ot 24 iyunya 2013 g.№ 495-p (v red. ot 9 noyabrya 2021 g.)
«O molodezhnom pravitel`stve Orenburgskoj oblasti» // Orenburzh`e. 2013. 17 iyunya. № 98.
9.    Konstitucionno-pravovoj status molodezhi i prior-itety` molodezhnoj politiki: rossijskij i zarubezhny`j opy`t: monografiya / pod obshh. red. V.V. Komarovoj; otv. red.
O.S. Ry`bakova. M.: Prospekt, 2023. S. 6.
10.    Sajt Associacii molodezhny`x pravitel`stv Rossijskoj Federacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: www.molprav.ru.
11.    Polozhenie o Respublikanskom konkurse «VVERX» na 2023 god // Sajt Ministerstva po delam molodezhi Respubliki Tatarstan [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https:// minmol.tatarstan.ru.
12.    Evstratova T.A. Osnovy` molodezhnoj politiki: ucheb. posob. M.: Berlin: Direkt-Media, 2018. S. 3.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
THE LEGISLATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AS A FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STATE
BEZRUCHKIN Vladislav Alexeevich
Student of the Faculty of Law of the Moscow State University of Humanities and Economics 107150, Moscow, Losinoostrovskaya St., 49, Russian Federation
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to analyze the impact of the legislation of the Russian Federation on the economic development of the state. In particular, the issues of interaction of law with other spheres of society's life are considered, the tasks and goals of legal regulation of relations between subjects in society are determined. The problems of regulatory impact on economic legal relations are also identified, and ways to solve them are proposed.
Keywords: The Constitution of the Russian Federation, the legislation of the Russian Federation, laws, federal laws, the system of legislation of the Russian Federation
References
1.    Klishas A.A., Pligin V.N. Rossijskoe zakonodatel`-stvo: 20 let razvitiya v rusle novoj Konstitucii Rossijskoj Federacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: duma.gov.ru.
2.    Xabrieva T. Napravleniya razvitiya zakonodatel`stva v Rossijskoj Federacii [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: fparf.ru.
3.    https://studfile.net/preview/16817184/page:6/.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
FEDERAL TERRITORIES: WORLD EXPERIENCE
KASHIN Igor Andreevich
Postgraduate Student of the Department of Constitutional and International Law of the All-Russian State University of Justice (RPA of the Ministry of Justice of Russia)
117638, Moscow, Azovskaya str., 2, room 1, Russian Federation
Abstract: This article examines the features of the functioning of federal territories in Malaysia, India, Pakistan and Venezuela. The federal territories of the mentioned states have a special constitutional and legal status, and the norma-tive legal acts of these countries provide for the consolidation of direct or indirect management of such territories by the central authorities.
Keywords: territorial structure, asymmetry of territorial structure, federal territories, innovative development, federal law, federal districts, constitutions
References
1.    Abzalova A.M. Genezis federal`ny`x territorij // Vestnik Ufimskogo yuridicheskogo instituta MVD Rossii. 2021. № 4 (94). S. 12–18.
2.    Gusev G.Yu., Suchkov S.L. Federal`ny`e territorii: zarubezhny`j opy`t i rossijskie realii // Pravooxranitel`naya funkciya gosudarstva: aktual`ny`e voprosy` teorii i pravoprimenitel`noj praktiki: sbornik statej nauchno-predstavitel`skix meropriyatij. M., 2022. S. 65–68.
3.    Knyazhev V.Yu. Territorii federal`nogo podchineni-ya v konstitucionnoj praktike zarubezhny`x gosudarstv // Voprosy` rossijskoj yusticii. 2022. № 17. S. 131–147.
4.    Konstituciya Respubliki Indiya ot 26 noyabrya 1949 g. // Konstitucii gosudarstv Azii. T. 2. Srednyaya Azi-ya i Indostan. M., 2010. S. 177–448.
5.    Constitution (amendment) (№ 2) Act 1984 [E`lek-tronny`j resurs]. URL: www.dvs. gov.my/dvs/resources/ autodonloadimages/560df8e5cfe6b.pdf.
6.    Praskova S.V. O federal`ny`x territorial`ny`x edinic-zax // Aktual`ny`e problemy` rossijskogo prava. 2013.
№ 12. S. 1543–1551.
7.    Irxin I.V. Federal`ny`e territorii i federal`ny`e okruga: smeshenie konstitucionno-pravovy`x modelej // Zhurnal zarubezhnogo zakonodatel`stva i sravnitel`nogo pravovedeniya. 2017. № 6. S. 30–37.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
FREEDOM OF COMPETITION: LEGAL DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT AND ESSENCE
ROZENKO Svetlana Vladimirovna
Postgraduate Student of the Institute of Economics, Management and Law of Irkutsk National Research Technical University (IRNTU)
664074, Irkutsk, Lermontov str., 83, Russian Federation
Abstract: The purpose of the work is to determine the constitutional content and limits of freedom of economic activity. For this purpose, general scientific (synthesis and analysis, induction and deduction, etc.), private law (formal legal, comparative legal) and others were used. The article examines the freedom of economic activity as a constitutional principle of the economic system. Competition is an integral part of the modern economy and plays an important role in ensuring the effective functioning of the market. The conclusion is made about the importance of competition in economic activity and its impact on business development and innovation. The significance of the work lies in the expansion of scientific ideas about the freedom of economic activity in the expansion of scientific ideas about the freedom of economic activity.
Keywords: principle, state, law, competition, freedom, economic activity, competitiveness
References
1.    Federal`ny`j konstitucionny`j zakon ot 21.07.1994
№ 1-FKZ (red. ot 01.07.2021) «O Konstitucionnom Sude Rossijskoj Federacii» // Rossijskaya gazeta. 1994. № 138–
139. 23 iyulya.
2.    Axmedova Z.A., Gamidova E`.G. Sootnoshenie principa svobody` dogovora i svobody` e`konomicheskoj deyatel`nosti // Vestnik Dagestanskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Obshhestvenny`e nauki. 2019. T. 34. № 4.
S. 127–132.
3.    Gadzhiev G.A. Pravo i e`konomika (metodologiya): uchebnik dlya magistrantov. M.: Norma; Infra-M, 2016.
4.    Mill` Dzh.St. Sistema logiki sillogisticheskoj i in-duktivnoj: Izlozhenie principov dokazatel`stva v svyazi s metodami nauchnogo issledovaniya: v 3 t.: per. s angl. 2-e izd., obrab. M.: Izdanie G.A. Lemana, 1914.
5.    Rotbard M. Vlast` i ry`nok: gosudarstvo i e`konomika. Chelyabinsk: Socium, 2003.
6.    Belyaev A.D., Xutorskaya L.L. Ponyatie e`konomicheskoj osnovy` konstitucionnogo stroya Rossijskoj Federacii // Akademicheskaya publicistika. 2023.
№ 2-2. S. 97–100.
7.    Muzhichenko A.V. Ponyatie i sushhnost` edinstva e`konomicheskogo prostranstva Rossijskoj Federacii kak konstitucionnoj cennosti // Vestnik Universiteta prokura-tury` Rossijskoj Federacii. 2023. № 1 (93). S. 89–93.
8.    Repeshko M.A. Konstitucionno-pravovoe znachenie principa svobody` dogovora // Molodoj ucheny`j. 2019.
№ 24. S. 253–255.
9.    Saudaxanov M.V. Svoboda e`konomicheskoj deyatel`nosti v konstitucionnom stroe Rossijskoj Federacii // Kriminologicheskij zhurnal. 2022. № 4. S. 148–150.
10.    Chervonyuk V.I., Shestopalov A.I. Konstitucionno-pravovoe soderzhanie prezumpcii dobrosovestnosti sub``ektov predprinimatel`stva // Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta MVD Rossii. 2011. № 6.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
ON THE ISSUE OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP
NOVITSKAYA Lyudmila Yurevna
Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
125040, Moscow, Leningradsky Ave., 49, Russian Federation
Abstract: The author in the article analyzed both foreign and Russian scientific research on the topic of «social entrepreneurship», determined its importance for the country and the development of the national economy. The author came to the conclusion that social entrepreneurship is designed to provide support to vulnerable segments of the population, providing employment opportunities to an increasing number of people, which is the basis for both the development of the business itself in particular, and the subsequent expansion of production and related useful infra-structure in general.
Keywords: social entrepreneurship, legislation, technologies, innovations, state support
References
1.    Batalina M., Moskovskaya A., Taradina L. Obzor opy`ta i koncepcij social`nogo predprinimatel`stva s uchetom vozmozhnostej ego primeneniya v sovremennoj Rossii. M.: GU VShE`, 2008. S. 10.
2.    Social`noe predprinimatel`stvo: ucheb. posob. dlya vuzov / N.Ya. Kalyuzhnova, E.P. Ogarkova, M.A. Osipov; pod red. N.Ya. Kalyuzhnovoj. M.: Yurajt, 2023. S. 11. (Vy`sshee obrazovanie) // Obrazovatel`naya platforma Yurajt: sajt [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://urait.ru/ bcode/518307/p.10.
3.    Vasil`eva O.N. K voprosu o gosudarstvennoj podderzhke social`nogo predprinimatel`stva // Predprinimatel`stvo i biznes: teoriya, metodologiya i praktika e`ffektivnogo upravleniya: materialy` IV Mezhdunarodnogo nauchnogo kongressa, Moskva, 23–27 iyunya 2016 goda / Finansovy`j universitet pri Pravitel`stve Rossijskoj Federacii; pod obshh. red. E.G. Kry`lovoj. M.: Dashkov i K, 2016. S. 198–203.
4.    Gaby`sheva Yu.M., Vasil`eva O.N. Pravovoe obespechenie social`nogo predprinimatel`stva v Rossii i Yuzhnoj Koree // Sovremenny`e problemy` razvitiya obrazovaniya i prava: sbornik materialov Vserossijskoj molodezhnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii, posvyashhen-noj 80-letiyu DVGUPS, Xabarovsk – Yuzhno-Saxalinsk, 10–11 noyabrya 2017 goda / pod obshh. red. S.E. Turku-lecz i E.V. Listopadovoj. Xabarovsk: Yuzhno-Saxalinsk: DVGUPS, 2017. S. 71–74.
5.    Panov A.A., Panova N.S., Petrakovich A.V. Social`noe predprinimatel`stvo – Innovacionnoe naprav-lenie razvitiya malogo biznesa // Nauchnoe obosnovanie strategii cifrovogo razvitiya APK i sel`skix territorij: ma-terialy` Nacional`noj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferencii / Volgogradskij gosudarstvenny`j agrarny`j universitet. T. I. Volgograd, 2023. S. 185–191.
6.    Galimova A.Sh., Sharipova A.A. Problemy` razvitiya social`nogo predprinimatel`stva v sovremennoj Rossii //Agentstvo «Sliyaniya i pogloshheniya». 2022. № 5
(10). C. 20–21.
7.    https://spravochnick.ru/sociologiya/socialnoe_ predprinimatelstvo_ego_formy_i_vidy/problemy_social-nogo_predprinimatelstva/.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE FACTORS FRAGMENTATION OF INTERNATIONAL LAW
FIRSOV Yury Ivanovich
Ph.D., Student of LLM Program «International law» of University of Vienna (Vienna. Austria), Head of «Ö Geschenk» 1110,Vienna, Hauptsemmeringer Strasse, 24, Vienna, Austria
Abstract: As the main objective reason for the fragmentation of international law, it is necessary to mention the increase in the number of norms of international treaties regulating international relations of the same name. The article deals with the main issues of fragmentation of international law. Examples of double interpretation in international judicial instances are given. Conflict of laws rules in the positions of decisions of International Courts and Tribunals are also considered.
Keywords: International law and order. Fragmentation of international law. The International Court of Justice
References
1.    Reshetneva T.V., Orlov A.S. Nekotory`e voprosy` fragmentacii mezhdunarodnogo prava: prichiny`, posledstviya, puti preodoleniya // Vestnik Volzhskogo universiteta imeni V.N. Tatishheva. 2021. № 2. T. 1. S. 243–252.
2.    Xafner G. Risk fragmentacii mezhdunarodnogo prava // Organizaciya Ob``edinenny`x Nacij. General`naya Assambleya. Oficial`ny`e otchety`. Pyat`desyat pyataya sessiya. Dopolnenie № 10 (A/53/10). S. 369.
3.    Koskenniemi M. What Is International Law For? // International Law / Ed. by M.D. Evans. Oxford Univ. Press, 2003. P. 109.
4.    Venskaya konvenciya. St. 41 Venskoj konvencii 1969 goda o prave mezhdunarodny`x dogovorov o prave dogovorov mezhdu gosudarstvami i mezhdunarodny`mi organizaciyami ili mezhdu mezhdunarodny`mi organizaciyami [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www.mid. ru/ru/foreign_policy/international_contracts/internation-al_contracts/international_contracts/1717276/.
5.    Dogovor mezhdu SSSR i SShA o likvidacii ix raket srednej dal`nosti i men`shej dal`nosti. Dogovor vstupil v silu 01.07.1988 [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://www. mid.ru/ru/foreign_policy/international_safety/disarma-ment/1581311.
6.    Soglashenie «inter se» v mezhdunarodny`x dogovo-rax [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://znzn.ru/mezhdun-arodnoe-publichnoe-pravo/soglasheniya-inter-se-v-mezh-dunarodnikh-dogovorakh.

POLICY AND ECONOMY OF EURASIA
THE LEGAL BASIS FOR THE USE OF INTELLECTUALLY ORIENTED TECHNOLOGIES INCLUDED IN THE MODEL OF THE FUNCTIONING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL ACTIVITY OF THE UNIVERSITY
VASILYEVA Oksana Nikolaevna
Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Legal Regulation of Economic Activity, Faculty of Law, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation
105187, Moscow, Shcherbakovskaya str., 38, Russian Federation
Abstract: In the article, the author examines the legal basis for the use of intellectually oriented technologies included in the model of the functioning of entrepreneurial activity of the university. Educational organizations not only use information-oriented technologies, but also create them. At the moment, intellectual assistants are able to conduct a dialogue with visitors, applicants, invited guests, which will significantly increase the attractiveness of the university.
Keywords: entrepreneurial universities, competitiveness, legal framework, information technology, intellectually oriented technologies
References
1.    Abdusalamov R.A. Pravovoe regulirovanie ispol`-zovaniya informacionny`x texnologij v sfere vy`sshego obrazovaniya Rossijskoj Federacii // Vestnik universiteta imeni O.E. Kutafina. 2023. № 2. S. 34–41.
2.    Vasil`eva O.N. K voprosu o roli predprinimatel`skix universitetov v povy`shenii konkurentosposobnosti stra-ny` // Evrazijskaya advokatura. 2023. № 4(63). S. 110–112.
3.    Vasil`eva O.N. K voprosu o znachenii predprini-matel`skix vuzov dlya nacional`noj e`konomiki // Pravovoj al`manax. 2023. № 6(28). S. 11–20.
4.    Sovremenny`e obrazovatel`ny`e texnologii: vidy` i trendy` [E`lektronny`j resurs]. URL: https://gb.ru/blog/ sovremennye-obrazovatelnye-tehnologii.